Robert Crowe takes us inside Solar Frontier’s CIGS thin-film solar cell fab, which began operations early in 2011 in West Japan. Solar Frontier’s fully automated facility is capable of producing about 1GW of thin-film solar modules.
Robert Crowe, Contributor, Renewable Energy World Network
April 29, 2011 — One of the world’s largest solar module factories, perched atop the bucolic foothills of West Japan’s bamboo and pine-covered mountains, began operating in February.
|Solar Frontier’s fully automated facility in West Japan.|
“We won’t take anything less than 10% of global market share” in the next 7 years, said Shigeya Kato, chairman of Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., which has a 100% subsidy in module factory operator Solar Frontier, who added that even a 1GW plant capacity won’t be enough to reach that goal.
|Solar Frontier’s CIGS manufacturing.|
The company invested 100 billion yen, more than US$1 billion, at its Kunitomi plant in Miyazaki Prefecture on the southwest island of Kyushu. Recouping that investment will be challenging, Kato said, because the Yen is trading low compared to the dollar and euro. Further complicating Solar Frontier’s efforts is the weak Japanese economy, which economists say will likely sink deeper into recession in the wake of the March 11 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear crisis that caused an estimated $300 billion in damage. Still, Solar Frontier leaders say demand for solar energy could be a bright story for this struggling country.
Solar Frontier’s Kunitomi factory produces modules that use a version of the copper, indium, gallium and selenium (CIGS) technology. Crowe toured the factory, which the company claims is capable of producing 112,000 modules (130 to 150W each) per week.
Solar Frontier’s Kunitomi factory and Sharp’s amorphous silicon (a-Si) facility in Osaka are being hailed by some as the return of Japan’s dominance in the solar manufacturing field. Sharp did not respond to a request to tour its factory in Osaka last week. More than a dozen reporters from Japan, Europe and the United States spent two days observing the Kunitomi facility through a tour funded by Solar Frontier.
Inside the CIGS factory
|Workers in the CIGS factory.|
A robotic arm applies a label to the back of a Solar Frontier CIS module.
He said the factory has been operating 24/7 since its soft opening in February. Herring said the 1GW plant is capable of producing 16,000 panels per day, 7 days a week. It will produce up to 600MW of panels (140 to 145W) in 2011 and ramp up to a gigawatt of production next year. “We feel this provides the economies of scale necessary to compete globally.”
All those processes require multiple megawatts of power. A 2MW roof-mounted solar array covers the factory’s vast roof, but it provides just 1% of the plant’s energy needs. It is capable of providing up to 2%, but recent volcano eruptions in a distant part of Kyushu have dusted the panels with a thin layer of ash, reducing the efficiency.
|A 2MW roof-mounted solar array on Solar Frontier’s roof.|
The facility produced plasma screen televisions before Showa Shell converted it to house the custom-engineered solar process. Kunitomi scaled up from Solar Frontier’s 20 and 60MW plants in nearby Miyazaki Prefecture (ramp up took about one year).
CIGS in the thin film melee
In recent press releases, Solar Frontier has said its copper, indium and selenium (CIS) modules are more environmentally friendly than conventional thin-film because they do not use toxics like lead or cadmium, which appears in cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film cells. First Solar, the world’s leading thin-film panel manufacturer, has also invested in bringing to market a competitive CIGS module, though its current modules are based on the CdTe platform.
“With respect to competitor claims regarding CdTe, we regard them as just that – competitor claims,” said First Solar spokeswoman Melanie Friedman. “Numerous scientific and technical studies and analysis consistently conclude that First Solar’s thin film PV technology does not pose a risk to human health or the environment.”
“CIGS will undoubtedly capture a larger fraction of total PV sales based upon these new levels of performance,” says Ryne Raffaelle, director of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s National Center for Photovoltaics.
Solar Frontier’s 150W thin-film modules are rated at 12.2%, while the company claims to have achieved a record 17.2% on a 30cm2 research panel at its laboratory. Solar Frontier says the CIS modules from the Kunitomi factory are about 12.2% efficient, while it expects to reach 14.2% efficiency in the next few years.
First Solar’s CdTe panels are rated at 11.6% efficiency. First Solar has said it is an industry price leader because its manufacturing costs are 75 cents per watt. “CdTe PV has been shown to be successfully scalable and is currently the lowest-cost PV technology,” said Friedman.
Solar Frontier is competing also against Suntech, Yingli and other Chinese companies, which are fast approaching the $1 per watt cost of installation goal set by the NREL. Solar Frontier does not discuss its costs, but executives said the company’s panels offer a number of advantages, including a larger surface (3 feet by 4 feet) with higher efficiencies. “Our key competence is productivity and also the CIS potential to achieve high efficiency,” said Ichiro Sugiyama, Solar Frontier’s head of product management.
Thin-film is leading the space race toward $1 per watt installation costs for utility scale, sun-powered energy plants. General Electric (GE) entered the race by investing in at least two thin-film platforms that have shown the ability to manufacture large panels at scale with energy efficiencies approaching 13% for the largest modules. Last year, GE announced that Solar Frontier will supply General Electric (GE) thin-film CIS modules bearing the GE name.
Don’t rule out cadmium telluride just yet, though. GE recently announced that PrimeStar Solar Inc., a startup that it invested in three years ago and now owns, recorded a record-high 12.8% efficiency for CdTe thin film solar panels. GE plans to take those panels to market with a 400MW American manufacturing plant.
China has cut back on rare earth materials exports. Though its CIGS panels are comprised of just 5% indium (most of which is recycled), Solar Frontier is working with IBM to replace indium with copper or zinc. The Solar Frontier and IBM research has achieved efficiencies of at least 9% thus far.
Solar in the nuclear crisis
Experts say Japan’s investment in solar research and manufacturing is especially crucial while the country grapples with its energy policy in the wake of the nuclear crisis trigged by a tsunami that knocked out back-up power at reactors at Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima reactors.
Some have criticized the Japanese government for not taking a more aggressive, European-style approach to renewable energy subsidies and feed-in tariffs (FITs), but Solar Frontier officials say it was the Japanese government that mandated parent company Showa Shell to invest in photovoltaic R&D decades ago, making its gigawatt-scale plant possible. Showa Shell initially worked on cadmium technology, but the company in 1993 turned its solar focus to CIS after it showed potential for higher efficiencies. Showa Shell named its solar business Solar Frontier in 2007, and has since sold 100MW of modules.
Showa Shell executives said the investment in the gigawatt-scale solar factory is a strategy for the company to cope with “peak oil” and the increasing expense of importing oil from the Middle East.
“The oil will always be there, but it’s more expensive to get,” said Hiroshi Yoshida, Solar Frontier’s vice president and CEO of manufacturing. Solar Frontier is among a handful of next-generation solar manufacturers to graduate from research and development incubators at conventional energy companies. Oil giant BP, once the world’s leading solar module manufacturer, appears to be backing off its investments in renewable energy, however, while Showa Shell is doubling down.
Where will the factory ship its panels?
With little acreage for solar farms, most of the installed PV capacity in Japan — and Solar Frontier’s domestic sales — comes from residential systems. Japan’s 54 nuclear reactors generate 30% of the country’s current electricity. Up to 50% of Japan’s electricity could come from nuclear by 2030, according to Reuters.
The factory operators say Japan will be able to lessen nuclear demand by increasing roof-top solar arrays on commercial buildings and residences. Also, many reactors, including the damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactors and a handful across the north, are inoperable due to earthquakes.
There is also potential to install utility-scale solar arrays on the farmland and cities contaminated with radiation, Kato said.
Solar Frontier has joined its Asian competitors in marketing to the rapidly expanding North American market. Solar Frontier will provide 1.2MW of its CIS panels to Granite Construction in Coalinga, CA. The system will provide up to 50% of the total energy required by the aggregate facility.
Japanese leaders and businessmen partake in a Shinto ceremony to mark the opening of the Solar Frontier plant.
Solar Frontier has also entered the Middle East market through a deal to supply Saudi Aramco with 10MW of its solar modules, which will be installed atop 40 acres of parking structures. Saudi Aramco owns 15% or Showa Shell, while Royal Dutch Shell owns 35%. Multiple investors own the other 50% of shares traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.
The Saudi Aramco solar array is expected to provide enough energy to power the large office building nearby, and it will serve as a proving ground for thin-film panels in the world’s hottest climates.
It could also lead to more investment in solar power by the Middle East’s petroleum industry.
Robert Crowe is a technical writer and reporter based in San Antonio, TX.