As the world’s biggest cities work to understand how their infrastructure can help them build clean and sustainable economies, a group of companies is helping in the effort with a study of what they’re calling vehicle-to-everything (V2X) charging.

California wants 5 million emission-free cars on the road by 2030. China, with a far larger population, wants 7 million electric vehicles by 2025. California has a cap-and-trade program to limit emissions from power plants, factories and fuel suppliers. China is launching a cap-and-trade system to lower fuel consumption and cut reliance on oil imports.  

Since the Paris Agreement, EVs have been viewed as a catalyst for change by all major countries. A low-hanging policy fruit for hastily-made proclamations, sometimes with, but more often without any regard for existing ecosystems in place. 

In December, 20 months into the top job at Germany’s Innogy AG, Peter Terium unveiled a 3 billion-euro plan to transform the utility into a provider of electric car technology, digital networks, and offshore wind farms. His goal, he said, was to become “a trailblazer of change. We do not wait to see what happens. We set trends.” Terium didn’t need to wait long to see what happened. A week later, he was out of a job.