In the race for the next generation battery, lithium-ion technology has made huge leaps in recent years. But the power packs continue to have drawbacks: they use raw material mined in unstable countries, they’re dangerous if they break and they could pack more power.

Energy storage has become an everyday element of grid planning and energy network management – driven by technology advances, proven benefits, and steadily falling prices. As storage goes mainstream, it’s no longer unusual to see deployments in the tens of MWh. Although about 95 percent of operational storage in the U.S. is in the form of pumped hydro, which can store massive amounts of energy cheaply for days, virtually all of the remaining storage resources are lithium-ion batteries.

The expected spread of electric vehicles (EVs) has led stakeholders to look at them not only as a burden for the grid but also as a resource, according to the concept of vehicle-to-grid (V2G). Electric vehicles can act as a mobile storage device and provide support to a grid based on intermittent and distributed energy resources (DER) but what is the basic requirement to enable an EV as a resource for the grid rather than a burden?
Grid Scale

The objective of PtG technology is to enable the balance of supply and demand for power in electricity networks with renewable energy. Importantly, as the use of renewable energy continues to grow there will be an ever-increasing need to support ramping and smoothing of renewables and to enable storage of the over-production via transfer of PtG on an as-needed basis.