--------" Much is made of dioxin and HCL in the report, but virgin wood does not contain more than trace amounts of chlorine, a necessary element in in both pollutants."------------
Not to mention the fact that dioxin is used to kill plants. It was the active ingredient in agent orange, used to defoliate large swaths of jungle in Viet Nam.
----------" The vast majority of biomass fuel in the United States remains residue and waste material from the agriculture and forest products industries, and that is not expected to change. These materials do not contain the precursors for the HAPs of greatest concern. And, if the wood fuel contains no mercury to begin with, it is not going to be formed in the combustion process.”--------
If you put dioxin on food or fiber crops, you will have no crops............................or biomass fuel from crop waste. Only dead crops.
Carbon is not soil fertilizer. Plants absorb no carbon from the soil. There are certain bacteria that "fix" nitrogen from the atmosphere and make it available to plants in the soil as nitrates. The analysis of "soil carbon content" is an indirect measurement of the presence of these bacteria. The use of liquid ammonia(NH3) as a fertilizer kills these bacteria-----it is a deadly poison if inhaled. The loss of soil carbon content is a gauge of the over use of liquid ammonia fertilizer. The use of liquid ammonia kills the bacteria and nemotodes in the soil, and therefore, the soil carbon content is lower.
With the addition of a small amount of ignition enhancer, diesel engines can run on ethanol just fine. Scania, the Swedish heavy duty diesel engine manufacturer has been running fleets of over 1,000 buses in Sweden and UK for years. ED95 (ethanol diesel 95%)
The use of ethanol can result in engines with over twice the thermal efficiency compared to those powered with petroleum gasoline. If you want to see what ethanol as a fuel can do, watch the Indianapolis 500 race this weekend. All Indy League Racing Circuit cars run on 100% ethanol----and have run exclusively on alcohol base fuels for over 50 years, The entire race is run without using one drop of petroleum base fuel.
Every single atom of carbon in a biofuel first had to be removed from the atmosphere by a living plant, from which the biofuel is made.
If it is not, then the plants are not living, and you have nothing to make the biofuel from.
Plants do not absorb carbon from the soil.
-----------" Cellulosic ethanol is a thermodynamic dead end because it requires more energy to make than starch or sugar ethanol, and even these are barely positive in energy balance at commercial scale."-------------
---------" The US EPA's second Five-Year Plan (aka RFS2) has been and will continue to be equally effective in stimulating productivity as was Mao's Great Leap Forward."-----------
Glad to hear it Cliff, the Great Leap Forward trick has sure worked fast.
Four Commercial Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefineries to Enter Production This Year
Brian Donovan------" Ethanol is not a great fuel, low energy density, and corrosive to engines. Most folks hat using it in their vehicles. "------------
That will come as news to the people who build and race the fastest, most advanced race cars in the world---------the Indy League Racing Circuit. All Indy League race cars run on 100% ethanol-----and have run on alcohol base fuels exclusively for over 50 years. If you want to see what ethanol can do as a fuel, watch the Indianapolis 500 on Memorial Day weekend at the end of this month. The entire race is run not using one drop of petroleum fuel. [I assume you meant "hate", not hat]
American Legislative Exchange Council
It seems strange that BP can double its business in one year in an economy that has already converted to ethanol(Brazil)----but they can't figure out how to produce ethanol economically and market it here.
I don't care how bad you think NG is---it is our best hope.
NG is the ONLY solution that can pass muster to bring real benefits and also get past conservative politics and economics.
ANY solution is useless if you can't get it implemented. To implement methane, we need massive changes in infrastructure. To get those changes we need to use fossil NG---it is the only way to get the conservatives on board.
All of your reasoning and science will do you NO good whatever. You are dealing with people who are not reasonable and logical. In fact, they start from the position that every thing you say is wrong---and they will NOT change their mind no matter what you say.
FNG is the ONLY tool we have that can provide the leverage to get change.
AFTER there is significant change to infrastructure is the time to start pushing to switch out to biomethane. Before that happens, everything else is hopeless.
----------" And with minor conversion, these units can also utilize the lower quality renewable gas produced currently by landfills, biodigesters and wastewater treatment plants"---------
Run it through a scrubber---fine water mist------and you have utility grade methane. The same stuff the utility pipes into your house.
-------" So - if NG prices should rise again in the future, the RNG market has the potential to supplant this fossil fuel with an alternative fuel source for many new generating stations."-------
Exactly the point I was making earlier.
Too many people want perfect to block out possible, and end up with neither.
Natural gas is not strip mined.
Coal and petroleum are.
Hydro fracking depletes surface water (severely in some arid areas), and has the potential to cause toxic contamination to often very limited water resources. For very long periods into the future, due to pumping waste back into wells.
I have never seen any industry spokesperson or pro-fracking proponent ever even mention to people the fact that there is a means of eliminating all of the most serious problems associated with fracking.
Propane is a gas under normal conditions, but under pressure becomes a liquid. Propane (as a liquid) can be used as the power transfer media(instead of water).
Propane is biologically inert(non toxic), and almost completely insoluble in water----if water is exposed to propane, it will diffuse out very rapidly when exposed to air. Let's assume for a moment that something goes wrong(although I really can't think of a situation this would happen with----let's just assume for a little while it could happen----and water down the well became exposed to propane. To have safe water again, all that would be necessary is to pump water out, and leave it exposed to the air for awhile, say overnight. Then you would have safe water. The propane would simply diffuse out, like a soda pop that goes flat overnight sitting out----same process, atmospheric diffusion.
A gel substance is used to transfer the propane------same stuff as in self foaming shave gel, also used in toothpaste, salad dressing and other foods. Safe enough to eat.
The propane is fully recoverable and reusable in the well head out flow. Catch it, and use it over to drive the next well.
Safe, non toxic, recoverable and reusable.
It is a commercially available option that is in use today.
Why does the industry not want people to know about this?