Yes. Solar co-operatives are need of the hour in India as they can yield quick results compared to big solar plants.
Need to be studied further and promoted.
Grid evacuation is a problem in other countries also due to increased wind power.
While welcoming the move by the Government on 1,500 megawatts of solar-power capacity with competitive bidding,the claim" solar electricity may become cost-competitive with fossil fuel-based grid power by 2017, instead of 2022." is overstated and not feasible. What is the cost of generation of solar power in comparison to Wind,Mini hydel and Biomass? Why the Government is not looking at Biofuel/biogas power from care-free growth,regenerative,CAM plants like Agave and Opuntia which can be grown in millions of hectares of waste lands in India? Mexico is doing this.
Wind Energy has great prospects in India. Some of the progressive policies for Wind Energy Growth in India:
WIND FARM CO-OPERATIVES & OFFSHORE WIND FARMS:
For captive consumption of electricity, wind electricity is probably the cheapest option. If one considers medium term horizon, together with benefits of CERs/ RECs, wind energy would turn out to be the cheapest source of captive electricity from the beginning. Total cost of ownership for wind farm is far lower than that of captive plants based on conventional fuels.
Main strengths of wind energy projects are:
• Enormous wind energy potential across the globe,
• Protection against inflation or escalation in electricity
generation cost over the project life,
• Ease of putting up a wind farm,
• Low operations and maintenance requirements,
• Short gestation period and others.
As on 31 Jan 2014 the installed capacity of various Renewables are:
Biomass Power & Gasification 1285.60 MW
Bagasse Cogeneration 2512.88 MW
Waste to Power
Solar Power 2208.36 MW
CAPTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN MWEQ)
Waste to Energy 119.63 MW
Biomass(non-bagasse) Cogeneration 517.34 MW
-Rural 17.63 MW
- Industrial 146.40 MW
Aero-Genrators/Hybrid systems 2.18 MW
SPV Systems 159.77
Water mills/micro hydel 10.18 (2547 nos)
Family Biogas Plants (numbers in lakh)(1 Million = 10 Lakhs) 47.10
Solar Water Heating – Coll. Areas(million m2) 7.51
(Source:Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,Government of
No doubt India occupies 5th Position in Wind Energy in the World after China,US,Germany and Spain. The phenomenal success of Wind Power in Germany and other Europen countries is through Wind Farm Co-operatives.
Community wind energy:
Community wind projects are locally owned by farmers, investors, businesses, schools, utilities, or other public or private entities who utilize wind energy to support and reduce energy costs to the local community. The key feature is that local community members have a significant, direct financial stake in the project beyond land lease payments and tax revenue. Projects may be used for on-site power or to generate wholesale power for sale, usually on a commercial-scale greater than 100 kW.
A wind turbine cooperative, also known as a wind energy cooperative, is a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise that follows the cooperative model, investing in wind turbines or wind farms. The cooperative model was developed in Denmark. The model has also spread to Germany, the Netherlands and
Australia, with isolated examples elsewhere . In India Depreciation Benefits are given to only big Industries investing in Renewables. Why not Government give Income tax benefits to Individual tax payers who invest in a WIND FUND(to be created by the Government) and give tax exemption under Section 80 C to start windfarm co-operatives. This way there will be mass participation in Wind Energy.
NEED FOR OFFSHORE WIND FARMS IN INDIA
Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher. However, offshore wind farms are relatively expensive.
Economics and benefits
wind power can help to reduce energy imports, reduce air pollution and
greenhouse gases (by displacing fossil-fuel power generation), meet renewable
electricity standards, and create jobs and local business opportunities.
COST COMPARISON OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
of about $1.5 million per MW
cost of 6-7 cents per kWh
– 1-3% of capital costs
May be built in smaller units
of $2.3 million per MW
cost of about 10-11 cents per kWh
O&M – 40$ per kW and 0.7 cents per kWh variable
Large turbines and farms required
In spite of the higher costs and the uncertainties involved in offshore wind,
research in this sector has been significant, and the main reason is the
potential offered by offshore wind turbines, especially in lands close to water .
At the end of 2011, there were 53 European offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the
United Kingdom, with an operating capacity of 3,813 MW,[ while 5,603 MW is
USA, China, South Korea, Taiwan, France and Japan have ambitious plans to go in for
offshore wind farms on a massive scale.
Length of coastline of India including the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea is 7517 km. Length of
Coastline of Indian mainland is 6100 km.
Thorough Wind studies have to be carried out along the coast to identify the prospective
offshore wind farm sites. Based on these studies a Pilot project can be started
by MNRE which will help as a Demonstration project.
Accurate wind measurements at the site are the constraint. Many a time wind data is extrapolated to the hub height at sites where the wind turbines are to be erected. In the US in California wind farm developers used to monitor (Anemometers, Anemographs) in the past at the sites where wind turbines to be erected (Now Wind Masts). This gives more or less reliable wind data and hence the turbine output.Unfortunately in some cases Wind Farm developers can't wait for years to measure the wind data(In some cases to avail the tax benefits
quickly) and hence correlate the nearest wind mast data. That is why there will be variation in the output. Moreover terrain also plays an important role in wind energy production.
Remote sensing measurement techniques enable measurements to hub height and beyond. There are resource measurement technique using sodar and lidar which need to be adopted in India along with at least 75 meter Wind masts.
Also Solar Co-operatives can be promoted in India. Solar cooperatives allow people and companies to work together to help each other succeed. The growing number of solar cooperatives -in US are making solar more affordable and accessible and proving that cooperatives aren’t just for hippies anymore. In fact, a recent study estimates that U.S. cooperatives account for nearly $654 billion in revenue and over 2 million jobs. And as Stephen Irvin, the president of Amicus Solar Cooperative told SolarPro magazine, “the great collaborators of the world will lead the way to a healthier and more vibrant future.”
Renewable Energy Expert
Excellent post. There is still scope to increase the efficiency of wind generators as Betz Coeficient is still far away.
Wind Energy Expert
Very good guidance.
Excellent article. Yes. Having succeeded in achieving top position in onshore wind in the world, it may be no wonder china repeats the same in offshore wind.
It's reported that China’s total wind turbine installed capacity will hit 100 million KW by 2015, including 5 million KW on offshore. Wind power has become the third largest electric power in China. China is determined to promote the revolution of energy generation and consumption, to control the total consumption of energy, to improve energy conservation, and to support the development of energy conservation and low carbon industry as well as renewable energy in order to ensure the national energy safety.
“The UK’s world leadership position in offshore wind could be critical in helping China overcome a number of key barriers to developing its vast offshore wind resource. According to a series of new reports by the Carbon Trust the UK, with more than a decade of experience in offshore wind deployment, can play a key role in helping China develop its offshore wind potential.
China has set a number of targets in relation to offshore wind including a deployment target of 5 GW of offshore wind by 2015 and 30 GW by 2030. At present some 1GW of near shore projects are under development but are facing a number of technical and commercial barriers in moving forward at the rate required to meet the Government targets. Barriers include uncertainty over an effective and efficient long-term pricing policy that is needed by project developers while ensuring consumers are protected from high costs, a slow consenting regime and the lack of a focussed innovation programme to drive costs out of the deployment process.
Commenting on the report Al-Karim Govindji, of the Carbon Trust said:
“China’s offshore wind resource is significant and will be critical for the country to help meet its rising energy demand through developing low carbon energy sources. The UK has an important role in offering its experience and learning to ensure that China’s vast resource is efficiently exploited. Innovation across a number of areas will be essential to ensure targets are met and to drive cost reduction across the whole sector.”
The new research proposes a number of policy instruments, developed to accelerate the roll out of offshore wind in the UK, be applied to China to speed up their offshore programme and help ensure government targets are met in a cost effective way. The research was undertaken working closely with the wind industry in China and involved participation of over 20 Chinese companies and undertaking two workshops in Beijing.
The new research concluded that China should consider:
• Developing an effective publicly funded research and demonstration programme to commercialise new cost reducing innovations.
• Developing an offshore wind capital grants scheme to improve the government’s awareness of the commercial realities of developing offshore wind in Chinese waters and support R&D and technology testing
• Developing an effective on-going price support mechanism to balance developer incentives with government costs to ensure value for money for electricity consumers and tax payers.
Developing an effective zoning policy to accelerate planning by relaxing constraints in identified development zones;”( Innovation essential for China to hit ambitious national offshore wind deployment targets, PRESS 30 MAY 2014,CARBON TRUST).
China’s energy demand continues to grow rapidly, most of it met by coal (70%) and oil (19%). Electricity supply is dominated by coal, though hydro already makes an important contribution. However, the government has committed to reduce energy intensity and increase use of renewables. To date, China has focussed on driving the development of onshore wind as a key contributor to its renewables targets, with total capacity at 75GW, a CAGR growth of 69% from 2001 to 2012. However, the challenge of connecting a lot of this capacity to the energy hungry eastern coastal regions as well as a desire to diversify energy sources has led to an increasing focus on offshore wind as a potential new source of renewable energy close to the demand. Indeed, the government has set ambitious targets of 5GW of installed offshore wind capacity by 2015 and 30GW by 2020 that would eclipse capacity in other countries. However, China faces numerous challenges to the development of the offshore wind industry,
The main projects
The Donghai Bridge Wind Farm in Shanghai is currently the most high profile offshore wind project in China. It was completed in time for the World Expo being held in Shanghai in 2010. It is made up of 34 turbines with a combined installed capacity of 102MW.
The province of Tinajin is constructing the Bohai Bay wind farm which, once completed in 2020, will be the world's largest offshore wind farm with an installed capacity of 1,000MW. By way of comparison, Europe's largest existing offshore wind farm is 300MW.
The Chinese government has identified six locations which are suited to offshore wind power and is preparing offshore wind development plans. The most advanced is Jiangsu which is in the process of tendering four new offshore developments each with a capacity of 200MW.
The main players
Five state-owned power generators dominate the offshore wind power market:
• China Guodian;
• China Huaneng Group;
• China Datang Corporation;
• China Huadian Corporation;
• China Power Investment Corporation.
Wind Energy Expert
Good judgement comes out of experience but experience comes out of bad judgement.
It will be much more with increased efficiency of solar cell.
Excellent. Hydrogen is the future energy carrier. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells form the best combination and energy option. Hydrogen can be generated through renewables like solar,wind.I was giving a Keynote speech at World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2014,Gwangjo,Republic of Korea,June 15-20 2014) where in there were excellent research papers on Hydrogen energy storage.