Very good guidance.
Excellent article. Yes. Having succeeded in achieving top position in onshore wind in the world, it may be no wonder china repeats the same in offshore wind.
It's reported that China’s total wind turbine installed capacity will hit 100 million KW by 2015, including 5 million KW on offshore. Wind power has become the third largest electric power in China. China is determined to promote the revolution of energy generation and consumption, to control the total consumption of energy, to improve energy conservation, and to support the development of energy conservation and low carbon industry as well as renewable energy in order to ensure the national energy safety.
“The UK’s world leadership position in offshore wind could be critical in helping China overcome a number of key barriers to developing its vast offshore wind resource. According to a series of new reports by the Carbon Trust the UK, with more than a decade of experience in offshore wind deployment, can play a key role in helping China develop its offshore wind potential.
China has set a number of targets in relation to offshore wind including a deployment target of 5 GW of offshore wind by 2015 and 30 GW by 2030. At present some 1GW of near shore projects are under development but are facing a number of technical and commercial barriers in moving forward at the rate required to meet the Government targets. Barriers include uncertainty over an effective and efficient long-term pricing policy that is needed by project developers while ensuring consumers are protected from high costs, a slow consenting regime and the lack of a focussed innovation programme to drive costs out of the deployment process.
Commenting on the report Al-Karim Govindji, of the Carbon Trust said:
“China’s offshore wind resource is significant and will be critical for the country to help meet its rising energy demand through developing low carbon energy sources. The UK has an important role in offering its experience and learning to ensure that China’s vast resource is efficiently exploited. Innovation across a number of areas will be essential to ensure targets are met and to drive cost reduction across the whole sector.”
The new research proposes a number of policy instruments, developed to accelerate the roll out of offshore wind in the UK, be applied to China to speed up their offshore programme and help ensure government targets are met in a cost effective way. The research was undertaken working closely with the wind industry in China and involved participation of over 20 Chinese companies and undertaking two workshops in Beijing.
The new research concluded that China should consider:
• Developing an effective publicly funded research and demonstration programme to commercialise new cost reducing innovations.
• Developing an offshore wind capital grants scheme to improve the government’s awareness of the commercial realities of developing offshore wind in Chinese waters and support R&D and technology testing
• Developing an effective on-going price support mechanism to balance developer incentives with government costs to ensure value for money for electricity consumers and tax payers.
Developing an effective zoning policy to accelerate planning by relaxing constraints in identified development zones;”( Innovation essential for China to hit ambitious national offshore wind deployment targets, PRESS 30 MAY 2014,CARBON TRUST).
China’s energy demand continues to grow rapidly, most of it met by coal (70%) and oil (19%). Electricity supply is dominated by coal, though hydro already makes an important contribution. However, the government has committed to reduce energy intensity and increase use of renewables. To date, China has focussed on driving the development of onshore wind as a key contributor to its renewables targets, with total capacity at 75GW, a CAGR growth of 69% from 2001 to 2012. However, the challenge of connecting a lot of this capacity to the energy hungry eastern coastal regions as well as a desire to diversify energy sources has led to an increasing focus on offshore wind as a potential new source of renewable energy close to the demand. Indeed, the government has set ambitious targets of 5GW of installed offshore wind capacity by 2015 and 30GW by 2020 that would eclipse capacity in other countries. However, China faces numerous challenges to the development of the offshore wind industry,
The main projects
The Donghai Bridge Wind Farm in Shanghai is currently the most high profile offshore wind project in China. It was completed in time for the World Expo being held in Shanghai in 2010. It is made up of 34 turbines with a combined installed capacity of 102MW.
The province of Tinajin is constructing the Bohai Bay wind farm which, once completed in 2020, will be the world's largest offshore wind farm with an installed capacity of 1,000MW. By way of comparison, Europe's largest existing offshore wind farm is 300MW.
The Chinese government has identified six locations which are suited to offshore wind power and is preparing offshore wind development plans. The most advanced is Jiangsu which is in the process of tendering four new offshore developments each with a capacity of 200MW.
The main players
Five state-owned power generators dominate the offshore wind power market:
• China Guodian;
• China Huaneng Group;
• China Datang Corporation;
• China Huadian Corporation;
• China Power Investment Corporation.
Wind Energy Expert
Good judgement comes out of experience but experience comes out of bad judgement.
It will be much more with increased efficiency of solar cell.
Excellent. Hydrogen is the future energy carrier. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells form the best combination and energy option. Hydrogen can be generated through renewables like solar,wind.I was giving a Keynote speech at World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2014,Gwangjo,Republic of Korea,June 15-20 2014) where in there were excellent research papers on Hydrogen energy storage.
This concept needs to be promoted in Developing countries.
Offshore wind is advancing in Europe but India is yet to start. US,China,South Korea,Taiwan etc. have ambitious Offshore wind plans.
Wind Energy Expert
While applauding the Government for giing priority to Solar Energy with huge funding,it must be stated that apart from solar there are more matured Renewable energy options like wind,biofuel/biogas power,mini/microhydro besides Energy Saving.
Solar Big Vs Small
Here are some developments in Big Solar projects.
“India in the early years of adding solar into its energy mix. The national government published a policy in 2010 that called for adding 20 GW of grid-connected solar energy and 2 GW of off-grid solar by 2022. Several Indian states also have their own solar incentive programs. That has made India a hot emerging market for solar equipment makers, including First Solar. The country is short on power supply and doesn’t have a stable electric grid, and it relies heavily on coal-fired power plants.
Project delays in India have been known for some time, and I wrote about it last November. Developers said they have had problems securing equipment and finalizing financing. But there is a “main, unstated cause of delay” for all these projects, Bridge to India said. Apparently developers have overestimated the amount of solar radiation, ordirect normal irradiance, at their project sites! The lower irradiance means their power plants wouldn’t be able to produce as much energy as they initially expected. That will cost them some of their profits. Some developers have thought about relocating or even canceling their projects, the market research firm said.”( A solar miscalculation: a big delay in power projects in India, Ucilia Wang, May. 13, 2013 ,Gigaom Research)
“Maharashtra’s state-run utility Mahagenco, is faced with delays to two solar developments, leaving it less than half way to its national solar mission and state renewable energy obligations. Maharashtra is one of the top three solar states in India.
The delayed projects are in Kudgoan, Osmanabad (100MW) and in Gangakhed, Parbhani (25MW).
The two plants are meant to contribute to its 313MW state solar obligation for 2013-2014. Mahagenco also has an obligation of 344MW of new solar capacity for 2014-15, and the requirement for 2015-16 is 379MW of solar.”( Land acquisition delays solar obligations in India
Lucy Woods - 30 April 2014, PVTECH).
Australia’s largest solar thermal energy facility – and the world’s biggest solar integration with a coal fired generator – is experiencing problems and is facing a delay of a year or more before commissioning.
The 44MW “solar boost” project at Kogan Creek in Queensland was supposed to have been completed at the end of last year.
However, a series of so problems – including an equipment supplier going into receivership – have caused a delay, with the $104 million project now likely to be completed by the end of 2014 at the earliest, and commissioned in 2015(World’s biggest solar booster project delayed by “difficulties”Giles Parkinson on 6 February 2014, REneweconomy).
“Indian Government supports Large Power Plants instead of Rooftop Plants and Off Grid Solar
India’s solar power policy is flawed anyway, as the government is giving subsidy to large power plants instead of small solar rooftop plants and off grid solar energy.
These plants are not helping improve solar technology nor are they making a big difference in India’s massive power deficit. All they are doing is benefiting some large corporate groups, who are not penalized even when they don’t meet the generous contract terms.
Lanco which is building these 2 plants has not indicated a time when it would complete the two plants, while others are also taking their own sweet time. MNRE instead of changing focus is all ready to award 500 MW to solar thermal power during the next phase.
These solar thermal plants are being supplied by Siemens who has left the business citing its non-viability. Many other top global solar thermal technology providers have shut shop as well. But Indian bureaucrats are living in the dark ignorant ages as usual.
India’s ministry of new and renewable energy is seeking to defer penalties on about $1 billion of solar-thermal power projects that are delayed by a lack of water, financing difficulties and equipment shortages.
Seven projects totaling 470 megawatts in capacity by companies including by Godawari Power and Ispat Ltd., Reliance Power Ltd. and Lanco Infratech Ltd. that were to be ready by May, aren’t operational, Tarun Kapoor, joint secretary at the ministry, said in a phone interview from New Delhi.
The projects could potentially forfeit about Rs230 crore ($42.5 million) in performance guarantees, according to rules when the contracts were awarded in December 2010.There’s obviously a problem since all are delayed, Kapoor said. This is the first time solar-thermal projects are being built in India and we want them to succeed. An expert committee at the ministry is recommending a 10-month extension for the projects, he said.
A 100-megawatt project owned by billionaire Anil Ambani’s Reliance Power is about six months behind schedule, Kapoor said. The Indian projects, ranging from 20 megawatts to 100 megawatts in capacity, are using turbines from suppliers including Siemens AG, General Electric Co. and Areva.
India has built 1,686 megawatts of solar capacity and expects to award an additional 500 megawatts of solar-thermal capacity by 2017, Kapoor said. The outcome of the plants under construction could affect those plans, he said.”( All Solar thermal Plant commissioning is delayed yet Indian Government wants to award more, Sneha Shah, May 16, 2013,BETA Marketexpress).
“New York -- First Solar Inc. won’t be building the world’s largest solar plant in China after more than four years of negotiations on pricing failed to produce an agreement.
First Solar had planned to build the 2,000-megawatt Ordos project in Inner Mongolia and sell the output to China’s power grid. Terms for selling the power were never agreed to, said Steve Krum, a spokesman for Tempe, Arizona-based First Solar.
“Due to the market environment, we aren’t going to pursue the Ordos project further,” Krum said today in an interview. The plant was never included in the company’s pipeline of contracted projects, he said.”( First Solar Abandons Plans for World’s Biggest Solar PV Plant in China, Christopher Martin, Bloomberg , July 14, 2014 ,Renewable Energy World).
This is the status of large solar projects around the world. On the otherhand small solar projects can be completed in time and power available quickly.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government plans to spend 15 billion rupees ($250 million) on programs to boost solar power and reform electricity supply to farmers to end blackouts in India.
Prime Minister,Shri Narendra Modiji,being a Gandhian should bring back to glory in rural India by encouraging rural economy through Agro industries utilising local resources and resourcefulness as advocated by Mahatma.
Biofuel/biogas for power offer promise in India being an agrarian economy.
Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the inedible parts of plants.
It is a type of biofuel produced from ligno cellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. Ligno cellulose is composed mainly of cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin. Corn stover, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. Production of ethanol from ligno cellulose has the advantage of abundant and diverse raw material compared to sources such as corn and cane sugars, but requires a greater amount of processing to make the sugar monomers available to the microorganisms typically used to produce ethanol by fermentation.
Switch grass and Miscanthus are the major biomass materials being studied today, due to their high productivity per acre. Cellulose, however, is contained in nearly every natural, free-growing plant, tree, and bush, in meadows, forests, and fields all over the world without agricultural effort or cost needed to make it grow.
According to Michael Wang of Argonne National Laboratory, one of the benefits of cellulosic ethanol is it reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 85% over reformulated gasoline. By contrast, starch ethanol (e.g., from corn), which most frequently uses natural gas to provide energy for the process, may not reduce GHG emissions at all depending on how the starch-based feedstock is produced. According to the National Academy of Sciences, there is no commercially viable bio-refinery in existence to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuel Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013 voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products.These issues, along with many other difficult production challenges, lead George Washington University policy researchers to state that "in the short term, [cellulosic] ethanol cannot meet the energy security and environmental goals of a gasoline alternative."
Agave tequilana weber can yield up to 2,000 gallons of distilled ethanol per acre per year and from 12,000-18,000 gallons per acre per year if their cellulose is included, some 14 dry tons of feedstock per acre every year.
These figures far outshine the plants that are dominating ethanol and bio fuels R&D and investment today, not only in terms of potential ethanol yield per acre, but also in terms of energy balance (the ratio of energy in the product to the energy input to produce it), as well as actual and prospective planted acreage.
Corn ethanol, for example, has an energy balance ratio of 1.3 and produces approximately 300-400 gallons of ethanol per acre. Soybean bio diesel with an energy balance of 2.5, typically can yield 60 gallons of bio diesel per acre while an acre of sugar cane can produce 600-800 gallons of ethanol with an energy balance of 8.0. An acre of poplar trees can yield more than 1,500 gallons of cellulosic ethanol with an energy balance of 12.0, according to a National Geographic study published in October 2007.
Another of the peculiarities of the nopal is biogas which is the same molecule of natural gas, but its production does not require machines or devices of high complexity. Also, unlike natural gas, contains primarily methane (75%), carbon dioxide (24%) and other minor gases (1%), “so it has advantages from the technical point of view since it has the same capacity heat but is cleaner, “he says, and as sum datum its calorific value is 7,000 kcal/m3. Javier Snchez et al in their extensive study on Opuntia as potential input for bio ethanol concluded:
“Prickly pear is a widely-known crop in the SE of Spain, where it is currently used for forage, fodder and fruit. Now it is being considered as a potential crop for bio ethanol production from its whole biomass. In order to estimate the potential bio ethanol production in the province of Almeria (SE-Spain) and the optimal location of bioethanol processing plants, a GIS analysis involving a predictive yield model of prickly pear biomass was undertaken following specific restriction criteria. According to this analysis, the total potential bio ethanol production in Almeria would be up to 502,927.8 t dm•year–1 from 100,616 ha maximum that could be cultivated with prickly pear, with a calculated yield ranging between 4.2 and 9.4 t dm•ha–1•year–1. An exclusive suitability analysis and a preferable suitability analysis based on the.
Analytic Hierarchy Process were performed in order to estimate the optimal location of the subsequent processing plants within Almeria’s road network by a discrete location-allocation model.”(Javier Snchez , Francisco Snchez , Mara Dolores Curt & Jess Fernndez (2012) Assessment of the bioethanol potential of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) biomass obtained from regular crops in the province of Almeria (SE Spain), Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 60:3, 301-318).
In India there is vast area of Wastelands.
Here are details:
Total Wastelands in the country:
Wastelands (sq.km) during 2008-09.
Major area of Wastelands in different States in India(sq.km):
1.Andhra Pradesh 37296.62.
2 Arunachal Pradesh 14895.24.
3 Assam 23 78438 8778.02 8453.86 -324.15 862.56 538.04 11.19 10.78 -0.41.
4 Bihar 37 94171 6841.09 9601.01 2759.92 1895.09 4654.41 7.26 10.20 2.93.
5 Chattisgarh 11482.
6.Gujarat 20108.06 9.
7.Himachal Pradesh 22347.88.
8.Jharkhand 11017.38 13 Karnataka 13030.62.
9.Madhya Pradesh 40113.27.
11 Orissa 16425.76 22.
12.Rajasthan 84929.10 24.
13.Tamilnadu 30 130058 9125.56 8721.79 -403.77 426.78 22.74 7.02 6.71 -0.31.
14.Tripura 4 10486 1315.17 964.64 -350.53 486.15 135.07 12.54 9.20 -3.34.
(Taken from Table-3: Category wise total area under wastelands (sq.km) during 2008-09 vis-a-vis 2005-06 and change in different categories, (Change Analysis based on temporal satellite data of 2005-06 and 2008-09), Wastelands Atlas of India 2011, (Change Analysis based on temporal satellite data of 2005-06 and 2008-09), Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi: Land Use and Cover Monitoring Division (LRUMG), Remote Sensing & GIS Applications Area, National Remote Sensing Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, Hyderabad).
In these waste lands care-free growth, regenerative, CAM plants like Agave and Opuntia can be grown on a massive scale to produce Biofuel/Biogas generation for power at local level. Unemployed Youth can be assigned waste lands of about 10 acres each and they can grow the above plants. This way the wastelands will be cultivated, providing employment to youth. Also large plantations of Agave and Opuntia being CAM Plants help as Carbon Sink.
A scheme can be worked out to allot about 10 acres to unemployed youth(after training in Agricultural practices) and they can grow fast growing,multiple use crops like Agave and Americana. Biofuel/biogas power plants can be set up at village level itself to supply biogas for cooking,lighting and power generation. In this way the decentralised power can be supplied.
Biogas technology has clear economic, social and environmental benefits for rural households, such as reducing environmental pollution by safely recycling manure and providing households with a clean cooking fuel alternative to fossil fuels or firewood. These benefits motivated the government’s huge expansion programme from 2003, leading to a cumulative investment of USD 4.5 billion by 2012 from government sources alone, and reaching a quarter of all rural households with biogas technology.
. Figures from the Ministry of Agriculture show that biogas users in China had reached 41.68 million
households by the end of 2011, including 39.96 million households with domestic biogas digesters. Biogas households accounted for 23 per cent of total households in rural China or about one third of the rural households suitable for biogas installation.1 With the financial support of the government, 24,000 small biogas plants and 3690 medium and large biogas plants 2 had been installed (MoA, 2012d), supplying biogas to 1.7 million households. The government aims to have 50 million biogas user households in rural China by 2015, or around half of all rural households suitable for biogas installation (NDRC, 2012).
In comparison of biogas plants in China and India:
“Until today, that is 3 decades down the line, about 4.5 million plants have been cumulatively installed. An optimistic estimate would put roughly 60% of these plants as still functioning, so we now have 2.7 million working plants (household level) in our country today. To put this into perspective, China in FY ’11 alone installed 2.8 million plants (and cumulatively 42.8 million). Moreover, the average capacity of our plants is 1-2 m3 of biogas per day, whereas in China it is 6-8 m3. Although these figures do not convey the whole picture, they do throw some light on the contrasting motivation levels for propagating biogas as a useful rural energy source.”
Once India was leading in Biogas and Now China took over. The main reason for Chinese success is use of Pig manure and human excreta as input”.
In India the animal dung has become scarce. The best option is to grow Agave and Opuntia on a massive scale in waste lands as they are care-free growth,regenerative and CAM plants. Biofuel and Biogas for cooking,lighting and power generation can be undertaken at local level. Even China and other developing countries can grow Agave and Opuntia. Mexico is pioneer in this.
In India we need to go for biogas power on a large scale as Biogas power is popular in less sunbelt countries like Denmark ,Netherlands and Germany.
Another area that needs attention is Wind Energy:
WIND FARM CO-OPERATIVES & OFFSHORE WIND FARMS:
For captive consumption of electricity, wind electricity is probably the cheapest option. If one considers medium term horizon, together with benefits of CERs/ RECs, wind energy would turn out to be the cheapest source of captive electricity from the beginning. Total cost of ownership for wind farm is far lower than that of captive plants based on conventional fuels.
Main strengths of wind energy projects are:
• Enormous wind energy potential across the globe,
• Protection against inflation or escalation in electricity
generation cost over the project life,
• Ease of putting up a wind farm,
• Low operations and maintenance requirements,
• Short gestation period and others.
As on 31 Jan 2014 the installed capacity of various Renewables are:
Biomass Power & Gasification 1285.60 MW
Bagasse Cogeneration 2512.88 MW
Waste to Power
Solar Power 2208.36 MW
CAPTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN MWEQ)
Waste to Energy 119.63 MW
Biomass(non-bagasse) Cogeneration 517.34 MW
-Rural 17.63 MW
- Industrial 146.40 MW
Aero-Genrators/Hybrid systems 2.18 MW
SPV Systems 159.77
Water mills/micro hydel 10.18 (2547 nos)
Family Biogas Plants (numbers in lakh)(1 Million = 10 Lakhs) 47.10
Solar Water Heating – Coll. Areas(million m2) 7.51
(Source:Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,Government of
No doubt India occupies 5th Position in Wind Energy in the World after China,US,Germany and Spain. The phenomenal success of Wind Power in Germany and other Europen countries is through Wind Farm Co-operatives.
Community wind energy:
Community wind projects are locally owned by farmers, investors, businesses, schools, utilities, or other public or private entities who utilize wind energy to support and reduce energy costs to the local community. The key feature is that local community members have a significant, direct financial stake in the project beyond land lease payments and tax revenue. Projects may be used for on-site power or to generate wholesale power for sale, usually on a commercial-scale greater than 100 kW.
A wind turbine cooperative, also known as a wind energy cooperative, is a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise that follows the cooperative model, investing in wind turbines or wind farms. The cooperative model was developed in Denmark. The model has also spread to Germany, the Netherlands and
Australia, with isolated examples elsewhere . In India Depreciation Benefits are given to only big Industries investing in Renewables. Why not Government give Income tax benefits to Individual tax payers who invest in a WIND FUND(to be created by the Government) and give tax exemption under Section 80 C to start windfarm co-operatives. This way there will be mass participation in Wind Energy.
NEED FOR OFFSHORE WIND FARMS IN INDIA
Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher. However, offshore wind farms are relatively expensive.
Economics and benefits
wind power can help to reduce energy imports, reduce air pollution and
greenhouse gases (by displacing fossil-fuel power generation), meet renewable
electricity standards, and create jobs and local business opportunities.
COST COMPARISON OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
of about $1.5 million per MW
cost of 6-7 cents per kWh
– 1-3% of capital costs
May be built in smaller units
of $2.3 million per MW
cost of about 10-11 cents per kWh
O&M – 40$ per kW and 0.7 cents per kWh variable
Large turbines and farms required
In spite of the higher costs and the uncertainties involved in offshore wind,
research in this sector has been significant, and the main reason is the
potential offered by offshore wind turbines, especially in lands close to water .
At the end of 2011, there were 53 European offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the
United Kingdom, with an operating capacity of 3,813 MW,[ while 5,603 MW is
USA, China, South Korea, Taiwan, France and Japan have ambitious plans to go in for
offshore wind farms on a massive scale.
Length of coastline of India including the coastlines of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea is 7517 km. Length of
Coastline of Indian mainland is 6100 km.
Thorough Wind studies have to be carried out along the coast to identify the prospective
offshore wind farm sites. Based on these studies a Pilot project can be started
by MNRE which will help as a Demonstration project.
Accurate wind measurements at the site are the constraint. Many a time wind data is extrapolated to the hub height at sites where the wind turbines are to be erected. In the US in California wind farm developers used to monitor (Anemometers, Anemographs) in the past at the sites where wind turbines to be erected (Now Wind Masts). This gives more or less reliable wind data and hence the turbine output.Unfortunately in some cases Wind Farm developers can't wait for years to measure the wind data(In some cases to avail the tax benefits
quickly) and hence correlate the nearest wind mast data. That is why there will be variation in the output. Moreover terrain also plays an important role in wind energy production.
Remote sensing measurement techniques enable measurements to hub height and beyond. There are resource measurement technique using sodar and lidar which need to be adopted in India along with at least 75 meter Wind masts.
Finally Energy Saving.
In India next to Industry is power for Agriculture major consumption.
Energy Efficiency and Saving yields quick results than energy generation. In India about 26 Million Agricultural pumpsets are in operation. Power for agriculture pumpsets consumes major chunk of total power next only to Industry. In some states the power for farmers is free or nominal. Electricity is a high grade energy and finds extensive use in industry, lighting etc. As such electricity should be used judiciously. Most of the Agricultural pump sets are old and inefficient. A scheme can be chalked out by Union and State Governments to replace the old and inefficient pump sets with advanced and efficient ones. A saving of about 30% can be achieved. A subsidy of Rs 15,000(out of cost of Rs 20,000 for a 5 HP pump set) can be given. The Farmer can meet Rs 5000. The Farmer gets about Rs 3000 from Scrap of old pump set. As such his contribution is hardly Rs 2000(Conversion 1US$ = Rs 60 ).
Drivers and Key Stakeholders: Agricultural Pump Set Replacement :
Identification of drivers a policy implementation empowers the policy makers as well as.
the implementing agencies to commit resources. The importance of key drivers for.
implementing a nation-wide policy for pump set replacement would also assist in.
identifying benefits to various stakeholders and thus seek their cooperation and.
commitment. It is often noted that a lack of institutional capacity has resulted in failure.
of various public programmes both within and outside the energy sector. The most
important drivers that support implementation of the suggested policy are identified as:
(i) Energy savings.
(ii) Reduced pressure on groundwater reservoirs.
(iii) Ability to manage tariff subsidy.
(iv) Enhanced transparency and accounting of energy consumption.
(v) Facilitation of appropriate tariff design.
A national-wide policy for replacement of inefficient agricultural pumps and conversion of.
LT distribution grid to HVDS would bring significant dividends at local as well as global.
level. At the local level it would help the Indian power sector by helping to curb network.
Status of Agricultural pumps.
• Low reliability of pumps.
Agriculture & Power.
• 48% of all irrigation water from Low reliability of pumps.
• Inefficient pumps.
• Lack of incentives, given the.
low or no cost power.
• High subsidy burden on State.
• 48% of all irrigation water from.
groundwater sources; 52% is from.
• Agriculture consumes 85% of all.
available freshwater resources.
• 12% of all aquifers in the country.
• Low extraction of water.
In order to accelerate Demand Side Management (DSM) measures in agriculture.
sector, Government of India approved a scheme on Agricultural Demand Side.
Management (Ag DSM) to be implemented by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE),
Ministry of Power. The objective of the scheme is to create appropriate framework for.
market based interventions in agricultural pumping sector by facilitating conducive.
policy environment to promote Public Private Partnership (PPP) to implement.
As a part of national Ag DSM scheme, first Pilot Ag DSM project was launched at.
Mangalwedha subdivision of Solapur Circle. This first pilot Ag DSM project covers.
2221 agricultural pumps connected on four feeders (Bramhapuri, Nandeshwar, Borale ).
The Detailed Project Report (DPR) is prepared after an exhaustive survey and detailed.
energy audit study for each and every pump. During the energy audit study detailed.
information (about all the agricultural consumers) such as details about pumps.
(number, Type, make, age and rating), water requirements / consumption, status of.
meter installation, number of harvesting cycles, cropping pattern, underground water.
level in different seasons, power supply pattern and socio-economic conditions etc. is
collected and analyzed.
Operating efficiency of all pump sets was evaluated based on the measurement of.
number of parameters. Out of total 2221 pumps, 1670 pumps were actually tested on.
The overall weighted average operating efficiency based on weighted average of.
HP rating for all existing pump sets is 28 %.
The overall weighted average operating efficiency for new Energy Efficient.
Pump Set (EEPS) is 48.9%. Head and flow data of each pump set has been.
considered along with the site water level variation and changes in cropping pattern to.
select an EEPS from the STAR rated pump sets manufacturers.9. The overall consumption of existing pump sets is work out to be 15.6 Million Units.
(MU), where as with energy efficient pump sets, the consumption will go down to 9.4.
MU for annual average operating hours of 1642. This will lead to the energy savings.
of 6.1 MU.
ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION DURING 2013-14.
During the year 2013-14, though the total ex-bus energy availability increased.
by 5.6% over the previous year and the peak met increased by 5.3%, the shortage.
conditions prevailed in the Country both in terms of energy and peaking.
availability as given below:
Energy (MU) Peak (MW).
Requirement 1,002,257 135,918.
Availability 959,829 129,815.
Shortage 42,428 6,103.
(%) 4.2 4.5.
The energy requirement registered a growth of 0.7% during the year against the.
projected growth of 5.3% and Peak demand registered a growth of 0.3% against.
the projected growth of 6.5%(Source: Central Electricity Authority LGBR: 2014-15).
It is hoped Union Government and State Governments adopt the scheme of replacement of inefficient and old agricultural pump sets with advanced and efficient ones on a war footing.
Also in lighting enormous power can be saved by switching over to CFL and Digital lighting from Flourascent lights. Also low consumption(about 0.2 to 0.4 Watts) of dual powered Reading Solar lights can be promoted for usage in houses especially by students. These costs little(about US$ 7 in India) and lasts for long.
No Power is Costlier than No Power – Dr.H.J.Bhabha
Communism is Socialism + Electricity – Lenin
““Of all the forces of nature, I should think the wind contains the largest amount of motive power … Take any given space of the earth’s surface, for instance, Illinois, and all the power exerted by all the men, beasts, running water and steam over and upon it shall not equal the 100th part of what is exerted by the blowing of the wind over and upon the same place. And yet it has not, so far in the world’s history, become properly valued as motive power. It is applied extensively and advantageously to sail vessels in navigation. Add to this a few windmills and pumps and you have about all. As yet the wind is an untamed, unharnessed force, and quite possibly one of the greatest discoveries hereafter to be made will be the taming and harnessing of it.” – Abraham Lincon
Put the RENEWABLES to WORK: To get inexhaustible,pollution-free energy which cannot be misused.
Renewable Energy Expert
Excellent. I always feel it is community participation in Renewables that yields quick results especially in developing countries. We have Wind Farm/Solar co-operatives in US,Germany,Australia,Denmark etc. I have had been advocating Wind farm/solar co-operatives in India. In India depreciation and other benefits are given to big industries/business houses for setting up Renewable Energy Projects. I suggest creating a RENEWABLE ENERGY FUND and individual Income Tax Payers can contribute to this fund under Section 80C(Upto Rs 1,00,000 one US$=Rs 60). This way there will be mass participation in Renewable Energy Projects and the Government will be having huge funds for Renewable Energy.
Renewable Energy Expert
This opens up the debate Big Vs Small solar projects. Big projects without exception of Solar tend to be behind schedule for reasons like finances availability,weather etc. On the other hand small projects can be completed quickly with quick results.
Our Indian Experience shows big solar projects were delayed very much.
As of 2013, there are no offshore wind farms in the United States. However, projects are under development in wind-rich areas of the East Coast, Great Lakes, and Pacific coast. In January 2012, a "Smart for the Start" regulatory approach was introduced, designed to expedite the siting process while incorporating strong environmental protections. Specifically, the Department of Interior approved “wind energy areas” off the coast where projects can move through the regulatory approval process more quickly. The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) has released a cadastre web tool to illustrate suitability of Eastern seaboard areas, where 18 wind parks are planned. The sea off the coast of Maryland supports up to 1,000 MW. The Danish export credit agency is helping the authorities plan a 200MW project.
Proposed and approved
• Cape Wind
• Delaware Offshore Wind Farm
• American Canyon Gulf Of Mexico Offshore Wind Farm
• University of Maine
The Delaware Offshore Wind Farm is a proposed offshore wind farm project, to be situated off the Delaware coast. It is one of many major off-shore wind farms that have been proposed on the East Coast of the United States. Other similar projects include installations in Massachusetts, and New Jersey.
Offshore wind farms are a key part of the Obama administration, which is promoting a $150 billion government program for reduced carbon emissions and 5 million new "green collar" jobs.
The Delaware Project came closer to reality when Delmarva Power of Delaware agreed to purchase 200 megawatts of power from a large wind farm to be operated by Bluewater Wind offshore from Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
Originally planned to be 600 MW, the Delaware project is expected to be built as 200 MW initially.and is frequently referred to as the Bluewater Wind Park, although Bluewater Wind is also planning wind parks in four other states, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, and Rhode Island.
The Delaware project is spearheaded by Bluewater Wind, LLC, an alternative energy company owned by the investment firm Babcock & Brown. Hundreds of large and small companies are participating in major offshore wind farms, including ABB, Aeorads, Downes Associates Ltd., Fluor Corporation, Ramboll, Tetra Tech, Inc., and Vestas.
Environmental information, including environmental impact statements, for the Delaware Offshore Wind Farm are published by the Aeorads Company, an information technology company in the alternative energy industry that collects, publishes, and analyzes real-time and historical Internet-based information for proposed and existing wind, solar, geothermal, biofuel and other alternative energy facilities in the U.S. and throughout the world. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy;
The United States has very large offshore wind energy resources due to strong, consistent winds off the long U.S. coastline. Offshore wind energy is a clean, domestic, renewable resource that can assist the U.S. in meeting energy, environmental, and economic challenges. A robust U.S. offshore wind industry could generate tens of thousands of jobs and billions of dollars of economic activity. Much of this activity would boost economically depressed ports and shipyards, which could be repurposed to manufacture and install offshore wind turbines. Research on European offshore wind farms shows that offshore wind generates more jobs per megawatt installed than onshore wind. A Virginia study has shown that the development of 3,200 MW of offshore wind would create 9,700–11,600 jobs within 20 years, and that installation of a 588 MW offshore wind farm would attract $403 million of investment in the local economy regardless of where the turbines were manufactured. Offshore wind turbines are more expensive to build than onshore turbines due to higher costs of offshore turbine foundations, larger turbine sizes, and undersea transmission cables. The cost per kilowatt of capacity was about 50% more for offshore installations than for onshore installations according to a DOE estimate.
In 2011, the NREL published a report, Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States, that analyzes the current state of the offshore wind energy industry. According to the report, "developing the offshore wind resource along U.S. coastlines and in the Great Lakes would help the nation":
• Achieve 20% of its electricity from wind by 2030, as offshore wind could supply 54 gigawatts of wind capacity to the nation’s electrical grid, increasing energy security, reducing air and water pollution, and stimulating the domestic economy.
• Provide clean power to its coastal demand centers, as wind power emits no carbon dioxide CO
2 and there are plentiful winds off the coasts of 26 states.
• Revitalize its manufacturing sector, generating an "estimated $200 billion in new economic activity, and create more than 43,000 permanent, well-paid technical jobs in manufacturing, construction, engineering, operations and maintenance".
NREL’s report concludes that "the development of the nation’s offshore wind resources can provide many potential benefits, and with effective research, policies, and commitment, offshore wind energy can play a vital role in future U.S. energy markets".
Projects are under development in wind-rich areas of the East Coast, Great Lakes, and Pacific coast. In January 2012, a "Smart for the Start" regulatory approach was introduced, designed to expedite the siting process while incorporating strong environmental protections. Specifically, the Department of Interior approved “wind energy areas” off the coast where projects can move through the regulatory approval process more quickly.
Wind Energy Expert