Excellent article. Infact Developing countries need Renewable Energy badly.
The phenomenal growth of Wind Energy in China is amazing.
Outstanding. As a Wind Energy Expert,I preserve this. Congratulations Joan Sullivan and Renewable Energy World for publishing this.
Batteries are crucial in energy storage.
Excellent. Very useful to Wind Turbine manufacturers.
How about Biofuel from Agave and Opuntia,care - free growth ,regenerative CAM plants. These can be grown millions of hectares of wastelands in developing countries. Also biogas for power generation from these plants. Mexico is pioneer in this. Let India take it up on a massive scale to provide employment and to bring waste land under cultivation.Also biogas can be produced from these plants locally and biogas for cooking can be supplied through pipes just like in China.
Agave is a CAM Plant. Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions in a plant using full CAM, the stomata in the leaves remains shut during the day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is stored as the four-carbon acidmalate, and then used during photosynthesis during the day. The pre-collected CO2 is concentrated around the enzyme RuBisCO, increasing photosynthetic efficiency. Agave and Opuntia are the best CAM Plants.
Agave Competitive Advantages
* Thrives on dry land/marginal land. Most efficient use of soil, water and light
* Massive production. Year-around harvesting
* Very high yields with very low or no inputs
* Very high quality biomass and sugars
* Very low cost of production. Not a commodity, so prices are not volatile
* Very versatile: biofuels, byproducts, chemicals
* World-wide geographical distribution
* Enhanced varieties are ready.
Another care-free growth plant is OPUNTIA.
Biogas from Opuntia
A source of renewable gas and fertilizer
Structure of the proposed process
1st step: Production of Biomass (Opuntia)
2nd step: Process of the Biomass into Biogas through Anaerobic Fermentation
3rd step: Process of the Digested Material into Fertilizer
The potential of Opuntia Biomass for energy production in semi-arid areas
100 to 400 tons of biomass/ha/year
1 ton Opuntia biomass = 50-60 m3 of biogas = 300-360 kWh of gas
30 000 to 140 000 kWh per ha
150 to 400ha necessary for 1MW electrical capacity
High efficiency in water & fertilizer use
Reduced risk for farmers of crop failure due to high drought tolerance. No competition with food crops on arable land as it can grow on degraded land.
Study on renewable biogas energy production from cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica by Elias Jigar, Hameed Sulaiman and Araya Asfaw and Abraham Bairu (ISABB Journal of Food and Agriculture Science Vol. 1(3), pp. 44-48, December 2011) revealed:
Cladodes, which are a plate like section of Opuntia ficus indica, were characterized for their physical properties, total solids (TS) and volatile solides (VS) and they were assessed in five combinations with or without cow dung for their suitability to biogas production in 2.8 L triplicate batch digesters. The highest total biogas yields were obtained from T5 (75% Cow dung: 25% Cladodes combination) as 14.183 L followed by T1 (cow dung alone) as 13.670 L (0 .022 m3/kg) and the lowest was from T2 (Cladodes alone) as 6.176 L. The percentage of methane gas obtained from the experiment for treatments T1, T2, T3 (50% cow dung: 50% cladodes), T4 (25% cow dung: 75% Cladodes) and T5 were 66.33, 53.16, 63.84, 52.1 and 69% respectively. Among all treatments, T5 was found to produce high methane percent of the biogas.
From Biogas, Power generation can be done at local level itself.
Another Option is to utilize Water Hyacinth which has become a menace for Biogas and subsequent power generation. In Indonesia Fine Furniture is made from Water Hyacinth.
Youth Economic Zones(YEZ):
The waste land can be allotted to youth with agricultural background (about 10 acres) on lease and ten such people can form a co-operative. They can grow fast growing care free plants like Agave, Opuntia and Jatropha. Biogas and biofuel can be generated at local level. Biogas power plants from KW size to MW size are available commercially from China. This way unemployment problem can be solved to some extent and the waste land can be brought under use.
Also in Philippines people weave clothes under the trade name DIP DRY. The specialty of these clothes, water won't stick to it. Just rinse the used clothes in soap water weave it and wear. Also Hecogenin a steroid can be got from it. There is cellulose and it can be input for paper making. There is a Paper mill in Brazil with raw material from Agave. Also in Tanzania,Lesotho,Kenya people curt the agave into pieces, dry them and mix them in concrete. Since it has fibrous material there will be binding.
Renewable Energy Expert
I hope Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers and Wind Energy Promoters will look into this.
Wind Energy Expert
Such ambitious plans are welcome provided the targets are achieved which is known in Energy Sector in India.
When two giants join there will be explosion of Renewable Energy.