Quite Ambitious Plan.
I visited Nigeria twice for attending Renewable Energy International Conferences at Abuja and Ota.
I find small energy applications like Solar water heaters,solar driers,micro hydro devices,solar reading lights, small wind chargers,biogaspower and for cooking from regenerative,fast growing, Multiple use CAM plants like Agave and Opuntia besides Energy Conservation in Agriculture and Lighting have great potential and need to be promoted on a massive scale.
Nigeria's primary energy consumption was about 108 Mtoe in 2011. Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary consumption. The rest is from fossil fuels (16%) and hydropower (1%).
Nigeria has oil reserves of about 35 billion barrels (5.6×109 m3) and gas reserves of about 5 trillion cubic metres, ranking 10th and 9th in the world, respectively. Global production in 2009 reached 29 billion barrels (4.6×109 m3) of oil and 3 trillion cubic meters of natural gas(Wikipedia).
In the wastelands of Nigeria Agave and Opuntia can be grown on a massive scale.
Higher Education in Nigeria:
The country has a total number of 128 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 38 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned.
First Generation Universities
Five of these Universities were established between 1948 and 1965, following the recommendation of the Ashby Commission set up by the British Colonial Government to study the necessity of university education for Nigeria. These universities are fully funded by the federal government. They were established primarily to meet a need for qualified personnel in Nigeria and to set basic standards for university education. These universities have continued to play their roles for the production of qualified personnel and the provision of standards, which have helped to guide the subsequent establishments of other generations of universities in Nigeria. Universities in this tier include the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and the University of Ibadan.
Second Generation Universities
With the increasing population of qualified students for university education in Nigeria and the growing needs for scientific and technological developments, setting up more universities became imperative. Between 1970 and 1985, 12 additional universities were established and located in various parts of the country.[2
Third Generation Universities
The need to establish Universities to address special areas of Technological and Agricultural demand prompted the setting up of 10 additional Universities between 1985 and 1999.
Pressures from qualified students from each state who could not readily get admissions to any of the Federal Universities continued to mount on States Governments. It became imperative and urgent for some State Governments to invest in the establishment of Universities.
In recognition of the need to encourage private participation in the provision of university education, the Federal Government established a law in 1993, allowing private sectors to establish universities following guidelines prescribed by the Government.
The typical duration of undergraduate programs in Nigerian universities depends largely on the program of study. For example, Social Sciences/Humanity related courses are 4 Years, Engineering/Technology related courses are 5 Years, Pharmacy courses are 5 Years, and Law courses are 5 Years, each with two semester sessions per year. Medicine (Vet/Human) degrees take 6 Years and have longer sessions during the year(Wikipedia).
With well established Universities and Advanced Institutes Nigeria can enter into collaboration with leading Institutes in Renewable Energy in US,Germany,India,Japan etc. and can innovate the projects needed for Nigeria and popularize them in the country.
Renewable Energy Expert
Excellent. In the hype for Solar and Wind among Renewables wave and Tidal Energy are sidelined. They have a role in the Energy Mix. I hope in India these will be promoted by MNRE.
As usual you are thorough with the subject Jennifer Runyon. Congratulations.
I* feel for Developing countries in Asia,Latin America and Africa the best option is Biofuel/Biogas power /Biochar. In an Agrarian Country like India these can play a vital role in the Energy Mix by growing care-free,regenerative and CAM Plants like Agave and Opuntia in millions of hectares of Waste Lands. Mexico is pioneer in this.
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand, when electricity prices are highest.
Pumped storage is the largest-capacity form of grid energy storage available, and, as of March 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports that PSH accounts for more than 99% of bulk storage capacity worldwide, representing around 127,000 MW. PSH reported energy efficiency varies in practice between 70% and 80%, with some claiming up to 87%.
In 2009 world pumped storage generating capacity was 104 GW, while other sources claim 127 GW, which comprises the vast majority of all types of utility grade electric storage. The EU had 38.3 GW net capacity (36.8% of world capacity) out of a total of 140 GW of hydropower and representing 5% of total net electrical capacity in the EU. Japan had 25.5 GW net capacity (24.5% of world capacity).
In 2010 the United States had 21.5 GW of pumped storage generating capacity (20.6% of world capacity). PHS generated (net) -5.501 GWh of energy in 2010 in the US because more energy is consumed in pumping than is generated.
The five largest operational pumped-storage plants are listed below (for a detailed list see List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations):
Station Country Location
Bath County Pumped Storage Station
Guangdong Pumped Storage Power Station
Huizhou Pumped Storage Power Station
China 23°16?07?N 114°18?50?E
Okutataragi Pumped Storage Power Station
Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant
United States 43°53?37?N 86°26?43?W
The use of underground reservoirs has been investigated. Recent examples include the proposed Summit project in Norton, Ohio, the proposed Maysville project in Kentucky (underground limestone mine), and the Mount Hope project in New Jersey, which was to have used a former iron mine as the lower reservoir. Several new underground pumped storage projects have been proposed. Cost-per-kilowatt estimates for these projects can be lower than for surface projects if they use existing underground mine space. There are limited opportunities involving suitable underground space, but the number of underground pumped storage opportunities may expanded if abandoned coal mines prove suitable.
A new concept is to use wind turbines or solar power to drive water pumps directly, in effect an 'Energy Storing Wind or Solar Dam'. This could provide a more efficient process and usefully smooth out the variability of energy captured from the wind or sun.
One can use pumped sea water to store the energy. The 30 MW Yanbaru project in Okinawa was the first demonstration of seawater pumped storage. A 300 MW seawater-based project has recently been proposed on Lanai, Hawaii, and several seawater-based projects have recently been proposed in Ireland. Another potential example of this could be used in a tidal barrage or tidal lagoon. A potential benefit of this arises if seawater is allowed to flow behind the barrage or into the lagoon at high tide when the water level is roughly equal either side of the barrier, when the potential energy difference is close to zero. Then water is released at low tide when a head of water has been built up behind the barrier, when there is a far greater potential energy difference between the two bodies of water. The result being that when the energy used to pump the water is recovered, it will have multiplied to a degree depending on the head of water built up. A further enhancement is to pump more water at high tide further increasing the head with for example intermittent renewables. Two downsides are that the generator must be below sea level, and that marine organisms would tend to grow on the equipment and disrupt operation. This is not a major problem for the EDF La Rance Tidal power station in France.
Small pumped-storage hydropower plants can be built on streams and within infrastructures, such as drinking water networks and artificial snow making infrastructures. Such plants provide distributed energy storage and distributed flexibleelectricity production and can contribute to the decentralized integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies, such as wind power and Solar power. Reservoirs that can be used for small pumped-storage hydropower plants could include natural or artificial lakes, reservoirs within other structures such as irrigation, or unused portions of mines or underground military installations. In Switzerland one study suggested that the total installed capacity of small pumped-storage hydropower plants in 2011 could be increased by 3 to 9 times by providing adequate policy instruments.
Pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations
The table below lists currently operational power stations. Some of these may have additional units under construction, but only current net capacity is listed.
Station Country Location
Bad Creek Hydroelectric Station
Bailianhe Pumped Storage Power Station
Baoquan Pumped Storage Power Station
Bath County Pumped Storage Station
Blenheim-Gilboa Hydroelectric Power Station
Castaic Power Plant
Coo-Trois-Ponts Hydroelectric Power Station
Dinorwig Power Station
Drakensberg Pumped Storage Scheme
Edolo Pumped Storage Plant
Entracque Power Plant
Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station
Guangdong Pumped Storage Power Station
Heimifeng Pumped Storage Power Station
Helms Pumped Storage Plant
Huizhou Pumped Storage Power Station
Imaichi Pumped Storage Plant
Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant
Malta-Reisseck Power Plant Group
Markersbach Pumped Storage Power Plant
Minhu Pumped Storage Hydro Power Station
Mingtan Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant
Muddy Run Pumped Storage Facility
Okutataragi Pumped Storage Power Station
Okuyoshino Pumped Storage Power Station
Presenzano Hydroelectric Plant
Pushihe Pumped Storage Power Station
Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant
Rocky Mountain Hydroelectric Plant
Roncovalgrande Hydroelectric Plant
Sardar Sarovar Dam
Siah Bishe Pumped Storage Power Plant
Shin Takasegawa Pumped Storage Station
Tai'an Pumped Storage Power Station
Tamahara Pumped Storage Power Station
Tianhuangping Pumped Storage Power Station
Tongbai Pumped Storage Power Station
Vianden Pumped Storage Plant
Xiangshuijian Pumped Storage Power Station
Xianyou Pumped Storage Power Station
Xilongchi Pumped Storage Power Station
Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Station
Yixing Pumped Storage Power Station
Zagorsk Pumped Storage Station
Zhanghewan Pumped Storage Power Station
This table lists stations under construction or operational stations with under-construction and current net capacity under 1,000 MW.
Station Country Location
Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station
Fengning Pumped Storage Power Station
Hohhot Pumped Storage Power Station
Hongping Pumped Storage Power Station
Huanggou Pumped Storage Power Station
Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme
Jixi Pumped Storage Power Station
Kannagawa Hydropower Plant
Linth-Limmern Pumped Storage Station
Liyang Pumped Storage Power Station
Qingyuan Pumped Storage Power Station
Tehri Pumped Storage Power Station
Upper Cisokan Pumped Storage Power Plant
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) can be expanded in India. Oneoption is to use wind turbines or solar power to drive water pumps directly, in effect an 'Energy Storing Wind or Solar Dam'. This could provide a more efficient process and usefully smooth out the variability of energy captured from the wind or sun. Since India has ambitious plans to expand Wind and Solar Energy,this makes sense.
Renewable Energy Expert
In the Bioenergy developing countries have an advantage in that they can grow on a massive scale care-free growth,regenerative CAM plants like Agave and Opuntia for Biofuel/biogaspower and Biochar in millions of hectares of wastelands. Mexico is pioneer in this. China leads in Biogas.
On both life cycle energy and GHG emissions agave scores at least as well as corn, switch grass and sugarcane, while reaching a similar ethanol output. The big advantages agave has over the before mentioned plants is that it can grow in dry areas and on poor soil, thus practically eliminating their competition with food crops and drastically decreasing their pressure on water resources. Plants which use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which include the cacti and Agaves, are of particular interest since they can survive for many months without water and when water is available they use it with an efficiency that can be more than 10 times that of other plants, such as maize, sorghum, miscanthus and switchgrass. CAM species include no major current or potential food crops; they have however for centuries been cultivated for alcoholic beverages and low-lignin fibres. They may therefore also be ideal for producing biofuels on land unsuited for food production.
Agave Competitive Advantages
0 Thrives on dry land/marginal land. Most efficient use of soil, water and light
0 Massive production. Year-around harvesting
0 Very high yields with very low or no inputs
0 Very high quality biomass and sugars
0 Very low cost of production. Not a commodity, so prices are not volatile
0 Very versatile: biofuels, byproducts, chemicals
0 World-wide geographical distribution
0 Enhanced varieties are ready.
The cactus is a hardy plant that tolerates poor soil nutrient and water shortages , but can also be grown in good soils and irrigation system.
The nopal is of important ecological role , as it helps to stop the degradation of deforested land , help to conserve soil moisture and prevent erosion. It also allows converting unproductive land into productive , given its resistance to extreme conditions . In many poor areas of poverty or extreme weather countries and nopal has acclimated and alleviates suffering and shortages faced by farmers.
In Mexico nopales production reaches 600,000 tons. Meanwhile, the prickly pear , there are 5000 hectares cultivated and 3 million hectares of wild exploitation of it.
There is an extensive culinary cactus , which is consumed in many forms in Mexico : pickled , salted, boiled , roasted , stewed , with eggs, in soups, with beans, jams, juices , etc .
It is estimated that the annual intake per capita in Mexico is 6.4 Kg
Moreover , today it is also used in shampoos, hand and body cream , soaps , ointments, various cosmetics , has also been investigated for commercial use for the development of biofuel, bioplastics production of vinyl paints , enamels and waterproofing .
Nopal slobber (obtained by soaking in water) as a fixative for whitewashing walls are also used . Diego Rivera coated with slime nopal some of his murals for conservation.
Inedible species of cactus are used to produce rubber , latex , mucilage , waterproofing and anticorroisivas substances , and as biomaterial useful for removing lead from water, for its acoustic qualities woody stem tissue of mature cactus is used in Japan to develop electronic musical equipment speakers .
NUTRITIONAL CONTENT NOPAL
Nopal contains calcium , iron, aluminum , magnesium, potassium , silica , sodium and manganese.
It also contains vitamin A, B1 , B2 and C.
It is rich in fiber, which is composed of complex polysaccharides .
It is also rich in amino acids, contains 17 of the 22 amino acids.
NUTRITIONAL CONTENT 100 GR . FRESH NOPAL .
WATER 91.33 %
1.33 % PROTEIN
CARBOHYDRATES 4.2 %
SOLUBLE FIBER 1.02 %
SOLUBLE FIBER 2.13 %
FAT 0.08 %
VITAMIN C 2.58 MG
VITAMIN A 3.76 MG
Biogas from Opuntia
A source of renewable gas and fertilizer
Structure of the proposed process
1st step: Production of Biomass (Opuntia)
2nd step: Process of the Biomass into Biogas through Anaerobic Fermentation
3rd step: Process of the Digested Material into Fertilizer
The potential of Opuntia Biomass for energy production in semi-arid areas
100 to 400 tons of biomass/ha/year
1 ton Opuntia biomass = 50-60 m3 of biogas = 300-360 kWh of gas
30 000 to 140 000 kWh per ha
150 to 400ha necessary for 1MW electrical capacity
High efficiency in water & fertilizer use
Reduced risk for farmers of crop failure due to high drought tolerance. No competition with food crops on arable land as it can grow on degraded land.
Study on renewable biogas energy production from cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica by Elias Jigar, Hameed Sulaiman and Araya Asfaw and Abraham Bairu (ISABB Journal of Food and Agriculture Science Vol. 1(3), pp. 44-48, December 2011) revealed:
Cladodes, which are a plate like section of Opuntia ficus indica, were characterized for their physical properties, total solids (TS) and volatile solides (VS) and they were assessed in five combinations with or without cow dung for their suitability to biogas production in 2.8 L triplicate batch digesters. The highest total biogas yields were obtained from T5 (75% Cow dung: 25% Cladodes combination) as 14.183 L followed by T1 (cow dung alone) as 13.670 L (0 .022 m3/kg) and the lowest was from T2 (Cladodes alone) as 6.176 L. The percentage of methane gas obtained from the experiment for treatments T1, T2, T3 (50% cow dung: 50% cladodes), T4 (25% cow dung: 75% Cladodes) and T5 were 66.33, 53.16, 63.84, 52.1 and 69% respectively. Among all treatments, T5 was found to produce high methane percent of the biogas.
From Biogas, Power generation can be done at local level itself.
Another Option is to utilize Water Hyacinth which has become a menace for Biogas and subsequent power generation. In Indonesia Fine Furniture is made from Water Hyacinth.
I have a Plan for India:
In India Youth Economic Zones(YEZ) on the lines of Special Economic Zones(SEZ) can be promoted . Under this each unemployed Youth can be given 5 hectares of waste land (there are millions of hectares of waste lands in India). 10 such youth can form a co-operative. They can be given training in Agricultural practices. They can grow fast growing, regenerative,care-free growth, multiple use, CAM plants like Agave and Opuntia. When the plants grow biogas for power and cooking, biofuel plants can be set up locally. Biogas can be supplied for homes in villages through Pipes with metering system. In China it is being done. In India Government gives heavy subsidy for LPG Cylinders for Individuals/Families. The Biogas will reduce the pressure on LPG. Besides bringing waste land under cultivation, the scheme provides employment to Youth. There are Kibbutz in Israel.
India is basically an agrarian country and as such biogas power/biofuel/ biochar makes sense as decentralized power especially for rural India. Moreover being CAM plants when grown on a massive scale will act as Carbon Sink.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP),India
Renewable Energy Expert
How about Energy Conservation in Electric Pump sets for Agriculture in developing countries like India?.
Also Energy conservation yields quick results than energy generation. In India Agricultural pump sets consume power next only to Industry. There are about 26 Million Agricultural Electric Motors in the country( about1.3 millionin Andhra Pradesh). Many of them are quite old and inefficient. For Agricultural pump sets the power tariff is nominal or nil in some states. A scheme can be chalked out By both Central and State Governments to replace the old and inefficient agricultural pump sets with efficient ones by giving a subsidy. Electricity is a high grade energy which finds use in Industry, lighting etc. As such it must be judiciously used especially in the agricultural sector. After Industry(35%),Agricultural Sector consumes much energy(27%). Replacement of inefficient pumpsets yields about 30% energy saving.
Reading lights with reliable and quality dual powered(Solar/Electricity/USB) to save enormous energy. Hitherto in most cases use Flourascent,CFL lights for reading. Solar Reading Lights consume 0.2 Watts compared to 40Watts of Fluorescent Bulbs. Moreover Reading Lights are portable.
Each Kwh saved is each Kwh generated.
Today’s Energy Wastage is Tomorrow’s Shortage
Put the RENEWABLES to WORK: To get inexhaustible, Pollution- Free Energy which cannot be misused.
Renewable Energy Expert
Sounds Fantastic. All Such tall talk many a times ends up in High Promise and low performance. Some time back there was a big push for Home Power Systems. Most of the Banks promised loan facility. For obvious reasons it did not take off. Instead of Talking of Big Projects it makes sense to go in for small projects in Solar,Wind,Biogas/biomass/biochar,Energy Conservation etc. Roof Top Solar,Small Wind Generators,Biofuel/biogas power from Care free growth plants like Agave and Opuntia as they are regenerative and CAM plants which can be grown in millions of hectares of waste lands in India.
As a person with decades involvement in Renewables especially Wind,I was amused to find that 4000 MW Wind Power in Andhra Pradesh MOUs were signed recently.
Though this sounds astonishing, any proposals for implementation in Energy especially Renewables must be REALISTIC and ACHIEVABLE.
Already the power cuts started in AP.
The past experience with Wind Energy in AP Sanctioned and implemented is dismal.
NREDCAP approved proposals by private developers to set up wind power projects with combined capacity of 1,800 MW. With this the total capacity sanctioned for developers of wind mills has reached 3,800 MW. Out of 2,000 MW of wind power plants sanctioned in the past only a few of them came up.
Annexure - 1 DETAILS OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR WIND POWER PROJECTS IN ANDHRA PRADESH
Annexure - 2
DETAILS OF NEW PROPOSALS RECEIVED AS ON 31-03-2011 S. No. Name of the Developer Capacity Applied (MW) Location
Note on Wind Energy in Andhra Pradesh
M. Thimma Reddy
People’s Monitoring Group on Electricity Regulation
Submitted to World Resources Institute (WRI)
Note on Wind Energy in Andhra Pradesh - PMGER
Dec 26, 2011
Today the Installed capacity of Wind in Andhra Pradesh:
State Capacity as on 31.03.2014(MW)
Annexure - 1 DETAILS OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR WIND POWER PROJECTS IN ANDHRA PRADESH
S. No . Name of the Station District Estimate d Wind Power Potential (MW) Projects already Installe d (MW) Projects allotted and to be commissi oned (MW) Land Details
1 BADHRAMPALLI KOTTALA Anantapur 30.00 - 34.00 Govt./Private 2 BANDARLAPALLI( KM Pally) Anantapur 10.00 10.00 10.00 Govt. 3 KADAVAKALLU Anantapur 150.00 38.35 112.10 Govt./Private 4 KAKULAKONDA (TTD) - Chittoor 12.00 6.00 -- TTD 5 KONDAMITHEPALL I Kurnool 75.00 62.75 26.00 Govt./Private 6 M.P.R.DAM Anantapur 30.00 - 24.00 Govt 7 MUSTIKOVALA Anantapur 40.00 - 30.00 Govt. 8 NALLAKONDA Anantapur 100.00 - 137.00 Govt./Private 9 NARASIMHA KONDA Nellore 10.00 2.50 - Govt. 10 NAZEERABAD Rangaredd y 5.00 - 5.00 Govt. 11 PAMPANOOR THANDA Anantapur 15.00 - 15.00 Govt. 12 PAYALAKUNTLA Kadapa 50.00 - 69.00 Govt. 13 RAMAGIRI I Anantapur 60.00 51.74 20.00 Govt. 14 RAMAGIRI III Anantapur 25.00 - --- Govt. 15 SINGANAMALA Anantapur 10.00 - 12.80 Govt./Private 16 TALLIMADUGULA Anantapur 50.00 5.00 24.80 Govt. 17 TIRUMALA Chittoor 2.00 1.03 - TTD 18 VAJRAKARUR Anantapur 700.00 - 570.50 Private 19 BORAMPALLI Anantapur 200.00 - 150.00 Private 20 BURUGULA Kurnool l 20.00 - 20.00 Govt. 21 CHINNABABAIYAP ALLI Anantapur 50.00 - 55.00 Govt. 22 JAMMALAMADUGU – I Kadapa 25.00 - 30.00 Govt./Private 23 JAMMALAMADUGU Kadapa 25.00 - 30.00 Govt./Private
– II (Gandikota) 24 KODUMURU Kurnool 6.00 - -- Govt./Private 25 KORRAKODU Anantapur 10.00 - 10.00 Govt. 26 MADUGUPALLI Anantapur 30.00 - - Govt./Private 27 TALARICHERUVU Anantapur 150.00 - - Govt./Private 28 TIRUMALAYAPALL I Anantapur 402.00 - 241.40 Govt./Private 29 ULINDAKONDA Kurnool 25.00 - 15.00 Govt. 30 ALANGARAPETTA Anantapur 20.00 - 20.00 Govt./Private 31 SIDDANAGATTA Anantapur 20.00 - 20.00 Govt. 32 BHEEMUNIPATNA M Visakhapa tnam 20.00 - - Govt. Total: 2377.00 177.37 1660.20 Note: Actual potential may vary based on actual field conditions Source: http://www.nedcap.gov.in/PDFs/Potential_Sites_WP.pdf Annexure - 2 DETAILS _Sites_WP.pdf
Annexure - 2
DETAILS OF NEW PROPOSALS RECEIVED AS ON 31-03-2011 S. No. Name of the Developer Capacity Applied (MW) Location Date of receipt of application
1 Rake power Ltd 5.00 Kadavakallu 21.01.2011 2 Ray Urja Infrastructure LLP 20.00 Nallakonda 03.02.2011 3 Enercon Wind Farms (Kerala) Pvt. Ltd 2.40 Nallakonda 03.02.2011 4 KSK Wind Energy Pvt.ltd 174.00 Tirumalayapalli 05.02.2011 5 KSK Wind Energy Pvt. Ltd 87.00 Talaricheruvu 05.02.2011 6 KSK Wind Energy Pvt.Ltd 282.00 Payalakuntla 05.02.2011 7 Vision Renergies & Projects Pvt.Ltd 50.00 Talaricheruvu 07.02.2011 8 Shubh Realty (south) Pvt.Ltd 36.00 Vajrakarur 09.02.2011 9 Synefra Engg. & Construction Ltd 42.00 Gandikota 09.02.2011 10 Helios Infratech Pvt.ltd 65.00 Madugupalli, Nayanikonda and Vamkonda
11 Animala Wind Power Pvt.Ltd 60.00 Animala, Kadapa 15.02.2011 12 Rayala Wind Power Co.Pvt.Ltd 200.00 Balavenkatapuram 15.02.2011 13 Gamesa Wind turbines pvt.ltd 200.00 Tagguparti & Honnura 01.03.2011 14 Renwable Energy Generation Pvt.Ltd 20.00 Talaricheruvu. 04.03.2011 15 ZR Renewable Energy Pvt.Ltd 20.00 Talaricheruvu 05.03.2011 16 Gamesa Wind Turbines Pvt.Ltd 19.50 Talaricheruvu 18.03.2011 17 RSR Power Pvt.Ltd 19.55 Talaricheruvu 22.03.2011 18 Swarna Projects Pvt.Ltd 20.00 Burugula 28.03.2011 Total … 1322.45 Source: http://www.nedcap.gov.in/PDFs/Potential_Sites_WP.pdf
Against this backdrop the proposed Wind Installations of 3712 MW is beyond imagination.AP is no where in harnessing Wind Energy(753 MW as on 31 March 2014)compared to Tamil Nadu(7253 MW), almost 1/10th.
On the other hand I have had been advocating Offshore Wind Farms and Wind Farm Co-operatives:
Today Offshore wind farms operate in Europe, UK topping. In India Onshore Wind farms started in 1985 and today the Wind installations in the country are(Compared to other countries): Installed wind power capacity (MW) up to 2013 end European Union 117,289 China 91,424 United States 61,091 Germany 34,250 Spain 22,959 India 20,150 United Kingdom 10,531 Italy 8,552 France 8,254 Canada 7,803 Denmark 4,772 Portugal 4,724 Sweden 4,470 Offshore Wind Farm installed Capacity(MW) Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind power’s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher,and NIMBY opposition to construction is usually much weaker. However, offshore wind farms are relatively expensive. At the end of June 2013 total European combined offshore wind energy capacity was 6,040 MW. As of 2010 Siemens and Vestas were turbine suppliers for 90% of offshore wind power, while Dong Energy, Vattenfall and E.on were the leading offshore operators. As of October 2010, 3.16 GW of offshore wind power capacity was operational, mainly in Northern Europe. According to BTM Consult, more than 16 GW of additional capacity will be installed before the end of 2014 and the United Kingdom and Germany will become the two leading markets. Offshore wind power capacity is expected to reach a total of 75 GW worldwide by 2020, with significant contributions from China and the United States. As of 2013, the 630 MW London Array is the largest offshore wind farm in the world, with the 504 MW Greater Gabbard wind farm as the second largest, followed by the 367 MW Walney Wind Farm. All are off the coast of the UK. These projects will be dwarfed by subsequent wind farms that are in the pipeline, including Dogger Bank at 9,000 MW, Norfolk Bank (7,200 MW), and Irish Sea (4,200 MW). In the end of June 2013 total European combined offshore wind energy capacity was 6,040 MW. UK installed 513.5 MW offshore wind power in the first half year of 2013. It can be easily seen While UK tops the world in Offshore Wind farms, India has double the capacity of onshore wind farms compared to UK and no offshore wind installations at all. Why? The reasons are not far to seek. There is a strong notion among Indian wind turbine manufacturers, Renewable Energy planners, Government etc. that offshore wind farms cost double to triple the cost of onshore wind farms. How this figure of double or triple arrived at is a billion dollar question. The main charm of offshore wind farms is that the roughness of the sea is zero(no obstacles like onshore) and since power is cube of velocity of wind other factors being linear, higher velocities mean the power shoots up very much. This factor is often overlooked. Moreover instead of going in for onshore wind farms, it will be worthwhile to go offshore nearby to harness more wind power. No doubt the cost of the offshore wind farms will be high compared to onshore because of foundation and cable costs. But these costs are offset by the higher power from offshore wind farms. I wonder how this figure of double or triple arrived at between offshore and onshore wind farms. Has any systematic life cycle study of onshore and offshore wind farms in a region has been carried out? Why not Research Institutes, Wind Industries in UK carry out such a study which will help to dispel the misconceptions on cost of offshore wind farms in India. On 6th February 2014 there was a UK-India Offshore Wind Energy Workshop in Chennai (INDIA) organized by UK Science & Innovation Network , which I attended. I suggested the need for above study and the need for offshore wind farms in India. India has long coast. At least a pilot project can be initiated by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) so that Private Wind farm developers follow suit. Countries like US, China, Taiwan, Korea, France. etc have ambitious plans to go for offshore wind farms. It is sad that India though occupies fifth position in wind in the world is yet to have a offshore wind farm? Also most of the Wind installations in India are from Industrial houses and businessmen. In countries like Denmark,Germany etc. there are Wind Farm Co-operatives. A wind turbine cooperative, also known as a wind energy cooperative, is a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise that follows the cooperative model, investing in wind turbines or wind farms. The cooperative model was developed in Denmark. The model has also spread to Germany, the Netherlands and Australia, with isolated examples elsewhere. The key feature is that local community members have a significant, direct financial stake in the project beyond land lease payments and tax revenue. Projects may be used for on-site power or to generate wholesale power for sale, usually on a commercial-scale greater than 100 kW.In India also Wind Farm Co-operatives can be set up with people’s participation. The Union Government can consider to give tax exemption under Section 80C so that the amount can be invested in Wind Farms with People as share holders.
Andhra Pradesh has long coast. It makes sense to go in for Offshore Wind Farms. We can’t be always imitators and should emerge as Innovators in Energy Policy and Utilisation especially Renewables.
Prospects of the Solar Industry in India – Roof Top Solar Power
For developing countries like India, Greenpeace has proposed a feed-in-tariff system which would provide the financing to enable massive renewable energy uptake. The scheme proposes a mechanism where the additional costs of renewable energies are financed by a combination of new sectoral emissions trading mechanisms and direct finance from technology funds to be developed in the Copenhagen climate deal.
Especially in developing countries, renewable energy investment and hence total generation costs, remains higher than those of existing coal or gas-fired power stations and this is unlikely to change in the next five to ten years. To bridge this investment and cost gap between conventional fossil fuel based power generation and renewable energy, a support mechanism is required. The Feed in Tariff Support Mechanism (FTSM) is a concept conceived by Greenpeace International. The aim of the mechanism is to expand the use of renewable energy in developing countries with financial support from industrialized nations. It is a mechanism which can allow for rapid deployment of renewable energy technologies via a new sectoral no-lose mechanism or through a technology transfer fund under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
In this backdrop, Greenpeace estimated the future installed capacity growth for renewable energy in India, including Solar PV. This estimate is based on two probable scenarios, the reference and the revolution scenario. The reference scenario is comparatively conservative and the revolution scenario assumes aggressive government policies and investments towards the growth of renewable energy.(EAI)
In this scenario, the installed capacity of solar PV is estimated to increase to 3GW by 2020 from current installed capacity.
India: Projected Installed Capacity (GW)
Year Solar PV Installed Capacity (GW)
Under the revolution scenario, it is estimated that the installed capacity of solar PV will increase to 10 GW by 2020. The solar PV capacity is projected to outpace the future installed capacity of wind power in 2040.
India: Projected Installed Capacity (GW)
Year Solar PV Installed Capacity (GW)
National Solar Mission
Transcending the estimates of the revolution scenario of Greenpeace, the recently launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (NSM) has three successive stages leading up to an installed capacity of 20,000 MW of solar energy including solar thermal by the end of the 13th Five Year Plan in 2022. The solar mission states to achieve off grid solar applications of 200 MW by 2013; 1,000 MW by 2017; and 2,000 MW by 2022. In utility grid power for both solar PV and solar thermal, including rooftop, it targets 1,000-2,000 MW by 2013; 4,000-10,000 MW by 2017; and 20,000 MW by 2022.
National Solar Mission Targets
Target installed capacity (GW)
Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Rooftop solar has been growing at a significant pace in many countries worldwide Germany leads, with over a million rooftops sporting solar panels USA has over 6 GW of rooftop solar as of mid-2014 Japan has an incredible 95% of their total 10 GW of solar in rooftops, so that would be a cool 9 GW
About success of Roof Top Solar in Germany Andrew Curry Wrote:
“Solar panels line Germany’s residential rooftops and top its low-slung barns. They sprout in orderly rows along train tracks and cover hills of coal mine tailings in what used to be East Germany. Old Soviet military bases, too polluted to use for anything else, have been turned into solar installations.
Twenty-two percent of Germany’s power is generated with renewables. Solar provides close to a quarter of that. The southern German state of Bavaria, population 12.5 million, has three photovoltaic panels per resident, which adds up to more installed solar capacity than in the entire United States.
With a long history of coal mining and heavy industry and the aforementioned winter gloom, Germany is not the country you’d naturally think of as a solar power. And yet a combination of canny regulation and widespread public support for renewables have made Germany an unlikely leader in the global green-power movement—and created a groundswell of small-scale power generation that could upend the dominance of traditional power companies.
Twenty years ago, it was clear solar power wasn’t going to get anywhere by itself. Photovoltaic panels were expensive and inefficient. Even solar systems designed to heat water, a far less technologically tricky task, were bad buys on the open market. Producing electricity from sunlight costs 10 times more than generating power using coal or nuclear energy. “The early systems might as well have been made out of gold,” says David Wedepohl, a spokesman for Germany’s Solar Industry Association.
In 1991, German politicians from across the political spectrum quietly passed theErneuerbare Energien Gesetz (renewable energy law), or EEG. It was a little-heralded measure with long-lasting consequences.
The law guaranteed small hydroelectric power generators—mostly in Bavaria, a politically conservative area I like to think of as the Texas of Germany—a market for their electricity. The EEG required utility companies to plug all renewable power producers, down to the smallest rooftop solar panel, into the national grid and buy their power at a fixed, slightly above-market rate that guaranteed a modest return over the long term. The prices were supposed to balance out the hidden costs of conventional power, from pollution to decades of coal subsidies.
Investors began to approach solar and wind power as long-term investments, knowing there was a guaranteed future for renewable energy and a commitment to connecting it to the grid. Paperwork for renewables was streamlined—a big move in bureaucracy-loving Germany. The country invested billions in renewables research in the 1990s, and German reunification meant lots of money for energy development projects in the former East.
Now German companies lead the world in solar research and technology. The handful of companies that make inverters, the devices that reverse the flow of electricity and feed power from rooftop solar panels back into national grids, are almost all German. On a sunny day last May, Germany produced 22 gigawatts of energy from the sun—half of the world’s total and the equivalent of 20 nuclear power plants.
The “feed-in” laws and subsidies pushed innovation to the point where solar panels are cheap enough to compete on the open market in Germany and elsewhere. The price for solar panels has fallen 66 percent since 2006, and the cost of solar-generated power may be competitive with coal in a few years, according to a study by UBS. Already, solar projects are thriving in places like India and Italy despite a lack of government subsidies or support, and a recent Deutsche Bank report predicted “grid parity” in Bavaria by next year.
You might think Germany would be smug about all its solar success. But, as usual, folks here are full of doubts. Part of the reason solar panels are getting cheaper is competition from China, which is threatening to push more expensive German producers out of business. Last year, German conservatives tried to end solar subsidies entirely, arguing that plummeting prices were encouraging too many people to install solar panels. They said that the subsidies come at the expense of city dwellers without solar-ready roofs, low-income electricity consumers, and investments in other forms of renewable energy. Even environmentalists have begun to grumble about the solar boom, which sucks up half of Germany’s funding for renewables but provides just 20 percent of green power.”( Can You Have Too Much Solar Energy? ,THE BIG QUESTIONS).
Instead of spending much money on Big Solar Projects,Roof Top Solar can be promoted both by Government and Private Sector. Roof Top Solar yields quick results but big solar projects tend to vave teeting troubles. Even the Biggest Solar Project in the World DESERTEC has been disbanded after bi big propaganda and expectations.
Biofuel/Biogas power from Agave and Opuntia:
Another area which yields immediate results and gainful employment is to grow care-free growth plants like Agave and Opuntia in waste lands. There are millions of hectares of waste lands. In the debate Food Vs Fuel the alternative is to grow plants with multiple uses which have care-free growth. Yet another option is Biofuel from Agave and Biogas from Opuntia and power generation. Agave is a care – free growth plant which can be grown in millions of hectares of waste land and which produces Biofuel. Already Mexico is using it. Another Care free growth plant is Opuntia which generates Biogas. Biogas can be input to generate power through Biogas Generators. Biogas generators of MW size are available from China. Yet another option is Water Hyacinth for biogas. Water Hyacinth along with animal dung can produce biogas on a large scale and then power. In Kolleru lake in Godavari and Krishna Delta in Andhra Pradesh in India it is available in 308 Sq. Km for nearly 8 months in a year. Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions In a plant using full CAM, the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is stored as the four-carbon acidmalate, and then used during photosynthesis during the day. The pre-collected CO2 is concentrated around the enzyme RuBisCO, increasing photosynthetic efficiency. Agave and Opuntia are the best CAM Plants. Researchers find that the agave plant will serve as a biofuel crop to produce ethanol. "Agave has a huge advantage, as it can grow in marginal or desert land, not on arable land," and therefore would not displace food crops, says Oliver Inderwildi, at the University of Oxford.The majority of ethanol produced in the world is still derived from food crops such as corn and sugarcane. Speculators have argued for years now that using such crops for fuel can drive up the price of food. Agave, however, can grow on hot dry land with a high-yield and low environmental impact. The researchers proposing the plant’s use have modeled a facility in Jalisco, Mexico, which converts the high sugar content of the plant into ethanol. Another plant of great use is OPUNTIA for biogas production. The cultivation of nopal((OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA), a type of cactus, is one of the most important in Mexico. According to Rodrigo Morales, Chilean engineer, Wayland biomass, installed on Mexican soil, “allows you to generate inexhaustible clean energy.” Through the production of biogas, it can serve as a raw material more efficiently, by example and by comparison with jatropha. Wayland Morales, head of Elqui Global Energy argues that “an acre of cactus produces 43 200 m3 of biogas or the equivalent in energy terms to 25,000 liters of diesel.” With the same land planted with jatropha, he says, it will produce 3,000 liters of biodiesel. Another of the peculiarities of the nopal is biogas which is the same molecule of natural gas, but its production does not require machines or devices of high complexity. Also, unlike natural gas, contains primarily methane (75%), carbon dioxide (24%) and other minor gases (1%), “so it has advantages from the technical point of view since it has the same capacity heat but is cleaner, “he says, and as sum datum its calorific value is 7,000 kcal/m3. In the fields where Jatropha is being grown,Agave and Opuntia can be grown as Inter cropping.
How about Energy Conservation in Electric Pump sets for Agriculture
Also Energy conservation yields quick results than energy generation. In India Agricultural pump sets consume power next only to Industry. There are about 26 Million Agricultural Electric Motors in the country( about13 Lakhs in Andhra Pradesh). Many of them are quite old and inefficient. For Agricultural pump sets the power tariff is nominal or nil in some states. A scheme can be chalked out By both Central and State Governments to replace the old and inefficient agricultural pump sets with efficient ones by giving a subsidy. Electricity is a high grade energy which finds use in Industry, lighting etc. As such it must be judiciously used especially in the agricultural sector.
Often energy studies aim at benefitting the rich but rarely concentrate on poor. A simple example is Box Type Solar Cooker. Box Type Solar Cooker is almost 60 years old. Why it has not taken off especially in a populous country like India? Only 0.6 million Box Type Solar Cookers sold but not used. Technology is culture specific while science is universal. There is no provision for frying in box type solar cooker ,only boiling. One cannot have two cooking systems one for boiling and another for frying. In Innovation theory there are two approaches,Technology Push Vs Demand pull. The Box type solar cookers belong to Technology Push category.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Rising sea levels and escalating pollution levels has generated worldwide interest and has given rise to new wind turbines designs. Wind turbines mainly are of two types: vertical axis(VAWT) and horizontal axis(HAWT). HAWT are the most common type of wind turbines built across the world. VAWT is a type of wind turbine which have two or three blades and in which the main rotor shaft runs vertically. They are however less frequently used as they are not as effective as HAWT.
The main difference between the VAWT and HAWT is the position of blades. In HAWT, blades are on the top, spinning in the air and are most commonly seen while in VAWT, generator is mounted at the base of the tower and blades are wrapped around the shaft. The main advantage of VAWT over HAWT is it’s insensitivity to wind turbines and therefore can be mounted closer to the ground making it effective for home and residential purpose.
This is vital information for those looking to install HAWT in their home. Whether they are looking for turbines that will be ideal for when they’re sleeping or entertaining guests, HAWT is the better choice. Vertical turbines spin on the vertical axis and comes in various shapes sizes and colors. It’s movement is similar to a coin spinning on the edge.
Here are some of the advantages of VAWT:
1. The turbine generator and gearbox can be placed lower to the ground making maintenance easier and lower the construction costs.
2. The main advantage of VAWT is it does not need to be pointed towards the wind to be effective. In other words, they can be used on the sites with high variable wind direction.
3. Since VAWT are mounted closer to the ground they are more bird friendly and down not destroy the wildlife.
4. VAWT quiet, efficient, economical and perfect for residential energy production, especially in urban environments.
The most popular type of VAWT are: Darrieus Wind Turbine and Savonius Wind Turbine.
Darrieus Wind Turbine
Darrieus Wind Turbine are commonly known as an “Eggbeater” turbine. It was invented by Georges Darrieus in 1931. A Darrieus is a high speed, low torque machine suitable for generating alternating current (AC) electricity. Darrieus generally require manual push therefore some external power source to start turning as the starting torque is very low. Darrieus has two vertically oriented blades revolving around a vertical shaft.
Savonius Wind Turbine
A Savonius vertical-axis wind turbine is a slow rotating, high torque machine with two or more scoops and are used in high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines. Most wind turbines use lift generated by airfoil-shaped blades to drive a rotor, the Savonius uses drag and therefore cannot rotate faster than the approaching wind speed.
Of late Combined Darrius and Savonius VAWT are available from 300W to 10 KW Size and enven higher.
Multi storied buildings are on the rise even in Towns. Today it is all Apartment culture in Cities and Towns. For Example in Nellore(Andhra Pradesh),India there are thousands of high rise apartments(minimum5 storied). As such VAWT make sense as they work well because of height. I am planning to promote the VAWT up to 1 KW size for individual Apartment Use. Already HAWT of 600W are working satisfactorily.
Another option is small water pumping wind mills like the one from Centro la Gaviotas,Bogota,Colombia.
In recent years, many people have tried to design newer, simpler and more economical mills. Scientists and technicians from the Gaviotas ecovillage resolved to create a new windmill concept: a tropical windmill.
Over nine years, they built 58 different mills. Each contributed in part to the creation of the Dual-Effect Gaviotas MV2E Windmill. Here, for example, was first tested the high-thrust rotor drive now used in all MV2E Gaviotas mills. As many as 800 Model 80 and 1,300 model 81 mills are installed throughout Colombia. They have also been exported to other nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the Gaviotas manufacturing facility in the Vichada Department of Colombia, technicians weekly build hundreds of double-effect windmills, created with the particular characteristics of the Tropics in mind.
Advantages of the Gaviotas 'MV2E' over traditional mills are:
1. it has a weight 10 times lower;
2. its purchase price is considerably lower;
3. it needs three times less wind;
4. it requires no braking during storms; and
5. by following directions, its installation is a simple do-it-yourself project.
Here is an action plan for Andhra Pradesh
on Renewables to bring in Rural Prosperity:
1. Promote Offshore Wind Farms.
2. Promote small wind generators as decentralised systems
3. Roof Top PV Solar
4. Creating Renewable Energy Fund. Investment by Income Tax Payers to be exempted under Section 80C(For Central Government).
5. Wind Farm Co-operatives on the lines of those in Germany,Denmark etc.
6. Solar Co-operatives on the lines of those in US.
7. Energy Conservation by replacing most of the inefficient 13 Lakhs irrigation electric pump sets(About 30% power can be saved). Agriculture consumes much power next only to Industry
8. Reading lights with reliable and quality dual powered(Solar/Electricity/USB) to save enormous energy.
9. Biofuel/Biogas for power generation and cooking from Agave/opuntia care-free growth,regenerative and CAM plants. In China Biogas for cooking is supplied trough pipes.
In the vast vacant land in India Agave and Opuntia can be grown and power generation established as decentralised locally.
10. Simple Box Type Solar Cooker with frying facility( 3D approach,Design,Demonstrate and Disseminate)
11.Cost effective vertical and cylindrical,mobile solar water heater design.
12. Low head Micro hydro device to generate power from the head of falling water from the delivery pipe of Electric/diesel pump
13. KW size Biogas power/cooking plant for villages.
14. Simple solar drier
15. Growing CAM Plants in Waste and Vacant lands which act as Carbon Sink.
Put the RENEWABLES to WORK: To get inexhaustible,Pollution- Free Energy which cannot be misused.
Renewable Energy Expert
For School projects OK but not for commercial exploitation.
Excellent Article. Given the safeguards,Nuclear Energy has a role in the Energy Mix of any coiuntry.
Here is the status and future growth of Nuclear Power in India:
India's operating nuclear power reactors:
Reactor State Type MWe net, each Commercial operation Safeguards status*
Tarapur 1&2 Maharashtra GE BWR 150 1969 Item-specific, Oct 2009
Kaiga 1&2 Karnataka PHWR 202 1999, 2000 nil
Kaiga 3&4 Karnataka PHWR 202 2007, 2012 nil
Kakrapar 1&2 Gujarat PHWR 202 1993, 1995 December 2010 under new agreement
Madras 1&2 (MAPS) Tamil Nadu PHWR 202 1984, 1986 nil
Narora 1&2 Uttar Pradesh PHWR 202 1991, 1992 Due in 2014 under new agreement
Rajasthan 1&2 Rajasthan Candu PHWR 90, 187 1973, 1981 Item-specific, Oct 2009
Rajasthan 3&4 Rajasthan PHWR 202 1999, 2000 March 2010 under new agreement
Rajasthan 5&6 Rajasthan PHWR 202 Feb & April 2010 Oct 2009 under new agreement
Tarapur 3&4 Maharashtra PHWR 490 2006, 2005 nil
Kudankulam 1 Tamil Nadu PWR (VVER) 917 December 2014 Item-specific, Oct 2009
Total (21) 5302 MWe
Nuclear reactors deployed in India
In December 2014 the 40% of nuclear capacity under safeguards was operating on imported uranium at rated capacity. The remainder, which relies on indigenous uranium, was operating below capacity, though the supply situation was said to be improving.
The two Tarapur150 MWe Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) built by GE on a turnkey contract before the advent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty were originally 200 MWe. They were down-rated due to recurrent problems but have run well since. They have been using imported enriched uranium (from France and China in 1980-90s and Russia since 2001) and are under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. However, late in 2004 Russia deferred to the Nuclear Suppliers' Group and declined to supply further uranium for them. They underwent six months refurbishment over 2005-06, and in March 2006 Russia agreed to resume fuel supply. In December 2008 a $700 million contract with Rosatom was announced for continued uranium supply to them.
The two small Canadian (Candu) PHWRs at Rajasthan nuclear power plant started up in 1972 & 1980, and are also under safeguards. Rajasthan 1 was down-rated early in its life and has operated very little since 2002 due to ongoing problems and has been shut down since 2004 as the government considers its future. Rajasthan 2 was downrated in 1990. It had major refurbishment 2007-09 and has been running on imported uranium at full capacity.
The 220 MWe PHWRs (202 MWe net) were indigenously designed and constructed by NPCIL, based on a Canadian design. The only accident to an Indian nuclear plant was due to a turbine hall fire in 1993 at Narora, which resulted in a 17-hour total station blackout. There was no core damage or radiological impact and it was rated 3 on the INES scale – a 'serious incident'.
The Madras (MAPS) reactors were refurbished in 2002-03 and 2004-05 and their capacity restored to 220 MWe gross (from 170). Much of the core of each reactor was replaced, and the lifespans extended to 2033/36.
Kakrapar unit 1 was fully refurbished and upgraded in 2009-10, after 16 years operation, as was Narora 2, with cooling channel (calandria tube) replacement.
Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, four NPCIL taskforces evaluated the situation in India and in an interim report in July made recommendations for safety improvements of the Tarapur BWRs and each PHWR type. The report of a high-level committee appointed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was submitted at the end of August 2011, saying that the Tarapur and Madras plants needed some supplementary provisions to cope with major disasters. The two Tarapur BWRs have already been upgraded to ensure continuous cooling of the reactor during prolonged station blackouts and to provide nitrogen injection to containment structures, but further work is recommended. Madras needs enhanced flood defences in case of tsunamis higher than that in 2004. The prototype fast breeder reactor (PFR) under construction next door at Kalpakkam has defences which are already sufficiently high, following some flooding of the site in 2004.
The Tarapur 3&4 reactors of 540 MWe gross (490 MWe net) were developed indigenously from the 220 MWe (gross) model PHWR and were built by NPCIL. The first – Tarapur 4 – was connected to the grid in June 2005 and started commercial operation in September. Tarapur 4's criticality came five years after pouring first concrete and seven months ahead of schedule. Its twin – unit 3 – was about a year behind it and was connected to the grid in June 2006 with commercial operation in August, five months ahead of schedule. Tarapur 3 & 4 cost about $1200/kW, and are competitive with imported coal.
Future indigenous PHWR reactors will be 700 MWe gross (640 MWe net). The first four are being built at Kakrapar and Rajasthan. They are due on line by 2017 after 60 months construction from first concrete to criticality. Cost is quoted at about Rs 12,000 crore (120 billion rupees) each, or $1700/kW. Up to 40% of the fuel they use will be slightly enriched uranium (SEU) – about 1.1% U-235, to achieve higher fuel burn-up – about 21,000 MWd/t instead of one third of this. Initially this fuel will be imported as SEU.
Kudankulam 1&2: Russia's Atomstroyexport is supplying the country's first large nuclear power plant, comprising two VVER-1000 (V-412) reactors, under a Russian-financed US$ 3 billion contract. A long-term credit facility covers about half the cost of the plant. The AES-92 units at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu state have been built by NPCIL and also commissioned and operated by NPCIL under IAEA safeguards. The turbines are made by Silmash in St Petersburg. Unlike other Atomstroyexport projects such as in Iran, there have been only about 80 Russian supervisory staff on the job. Construction started in March 2002.
Russia is supplying all the enriched fuel through the life of the plant, though India will reprocess it and keep the plutonium*. The first unit was due to start supplying power in March 2008 and go into commercial operation late in 2008, but this schedule slipped by six years. In the latter part of 2011 and into 2012 completion and fuel loading was delayed by public protests, but in March 2012 the state government approved the plant's commissioning and said it would deal with any obstruction. Unit 1 started up in mid-July 2013, was connected to the grid in October 2013 and entered commercial operation at the end of December 2014. It had reached full power in mid-year but then required turbine repairs, though it generated 2.8 TWh in its first year. Unit 2 is expected to start up in April 2015. Each is 917 MWe net.
* The original agreement in 1988 specified return of used fuel to Russia, but a 1998 supplemental agreement allowed India to retain and reprocess it.
While the first core load of fuel was delivered early in 2008 there have been delays in supply of some equipment and documentation. Control system documentation was delivered late, and when reviewed by NPCIL it showed up the need for significant refining and even reworking some aspects. The design basis flood level is 5.44m, and the turbine hall floor is 8.1m above mean sea level. The 2004 tsunami was under 3m.
A small desalination plant is associated with the Kudankulam plant to produce 426 m3/hr for it using four-stage multi-vacuum compression (MVC) technology. Another reverse osmosis (RO) plant is in operation to supply local township needs.
Kaiga 3 started up in February, was connected to the grid in April and went into commercial operation in May 2007. Unit 4 started up in November 2010 and was grid-connected in January 2011, but is about 30 months behind original schedule due to shortage of uranium. The Kaiga units are not under UN safeguards, so cannot use imported uranium.
Rajasthan 5 started up in November 2009, using imported Russian fuel, and in December it was connected to the northern grid. RAPP 6 started up in January 2010 and was grid connected at the end of March. Both are now in commercial operation(Source: Wold Nuclear Association).
India's nuclear power reactors under construction:
Reactor Type MWe gross, net,
each Project control Construction start Commercial operation due Safeguards status
Kudankulam 2 PWR (VVER) 1000, 917 NPCIL July 2002 2015 item-specific, Oct 2009
Kalpakkam PFBR FBR 500, 470 Bhavini Oct 2004 2015 -
Kakrapar 3 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL Nov 2010 June 2015
Kakrapar 4 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL March 2011 Dec 2015
Rajasthan 7 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL July 2011 June 2016
Rajasthan 8 PHWR 700, 630 NPCIL Sept 2011 Dec 2016
4300 MWe gross
The details of the nuclear power generation capacity in India
Year Total nuclear
electricity generation Capacity factor
2008–09 14,921 GW•h
2009–10 18,798 GW•h 61%
2010–11 26,472 GW•h 71%
2011–12 32,455 GW•h 79%
2012–13 32,863 GW•h 80%
The Deccan Times reports: “Over the next five years, India plans to start building a safe nuclear reactor that can be installed in the heart of Delhi or Mumbai without posing danger to people and environment. The 300-MWe advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR), whose construction will start in the 12th plan period, would be so safe that it can be erected in the heart of any city, said S A Bhardwaj, director, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd.”
Construction on the actual thorium reactors will commence in 2016.
Thorium is abundant in India (and pretty much everywhere else), but there is a special concentration in the sands of Kerala. The plant, which itself will largely be used as an experimental facility, will generate 65% of its power from the famed radioactive chemical element. DT notes that the “first AHWR reactor – with thorium for fuel — will be used to test new technologies on safety as well as on thorium fuel cycle … It will be India’s first step to embrace thorium as the nuclear fuel of choice.”
Getting thorium power up and running in India would be a huge boon for the energy-poor nation, which also sits atop 30% of the world’s thorium reserves. But it’d also make for an unprecedented laboratory with which to study modern thorium technology; the world’s energy companies, thirsty for clean baseload power, will be watching closely. It’d be about time, as far as India’s concerned.