I visited China 5 times in the last 12 years and could see the phenomenal growth of Industry there more so Renewables like Wind and Solar. The secret behind China's growth lies in the facts that free land,free electricity,free capital(at an affordable interest) besides hard working nature of Chinese.
Excellent. Brazil is leader in Ethanol and now forging ahead in other Renewables like Solar and Wind. In India also big solar projects are coming up. What is needed is to increase the efficiency by keeping the Solar PV panels clean from Dust.
The Author is too optimistic of Solar in India. Solar is nowhere compared to wind in India as can be seen from the following figures :
Total Renewable Energy Installed Capacity (31 Dec 2014)
Source Total Installed Capacity (MW)
Wind Power 22,465.03
Solar Power (SPV) 3,062.68
Small Hydro Power 3,990.83
Biomass Power 1,365.20
Bagasse Cogeneration 2,800.35
Waste to Power 107.58
The Efficiency of Solar PV at present is low compared to Wind,Microhydel,Mini hydel etc. The only argument is favour for large scale utilisation of Solar PV is India is in the Sun Belt Region. Most of the large solar PV projects are in Rajasthan which experiences Loo sand storms in Summer. What is the effect of these fast travelling sand particles on the fine surface of the solar panel nobody studied systematically as Solar PV in Rajasthan is of recent times.Moreover Water is scarce in the Rajasthan to keep the panels clean.
Instead of going for Large Solar Projects,roof top solar,solar Reading Lights(Dual Powered) make sense in India.
To meet the growing Energy needs of India starting of Offshore Wind Farms(Since India has long Coast) and creating Renewable Energy Fund and for those who invest in it under section 80C exemption from Income Tax,decentralised erenewable Energy Systems etc. are the need of the hour.
Here is an Action Plan on REnewables for India:
Energy Conservation in Electric Pump sets for Agriculture:
Energy conservation yields quick results than energy generation. In India Agricultural pump sets consume power next only to Industry. There are about 26 Million Agricultural Electric Motors in the country( about13 Lakhs in Andhra Pradesh). Many of them are quite old and inefficient. For Agricultural pump sets the power tariff is nominal or nil in some states. A scheme can be chalked out By both Central and State Governments to replace the old and inefficient agricultural pump sets with efficient ones by giving a subsidy. Electricity is a high grade energy which finds use in Industry, lighting etc. As such it must be judiciously used especially in the agricultural sector. Next to Industry Agriculture consumes about 27% of power. By replacing the inefficient pumpsets,one can save 30% of power.
Biofuel/Biogas power from Agave and Opuntia:
Another area which yields immediate results and gainful employment is to grow care-free growth plants like Agave and Opuntia in waste lands. There are millions of hectares of waste lands. In the debate Food Vs Fuel the alternative is to grow plants with multiple uses which have care-free growth. Yet another option is Biofuel from Agave and Biogas from Opuntia and power generation. Agave is a care – free growth plant which can be grown in millions of hectares of waste land and which produces Biofuel. Already Mexico is using it. Another Care free growth plant is Opuntia which generates Biogas. Biogas can be input to generate power through Biogas Generators. Biogas generators of MW size are available from China. Yet another option is Water Hyacinth for biogas. Water Hyacinth along with animal dung can produce biogas on a large scale and then power. In Kolleru lake in Godavari and Krishna Delta in Andhra Pradesh in India it is available in 308 Sq. Km for nearly 8 months in a year. Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions In a plant using full CAM, the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is stored as the four-carbon acidmalate, and then used during photosynthesis during the day. The pre-collected CO2 is concentrated around the enzyme RuBisCO, increasing photosynthetic efficiency. Agave and Opuntia are the best CAM Plants. Researchers find that the agave plant will serve as a biofuel crop to produce ethanol. "Agave has a huge advantage, as it can grow in marginal or desert land, not on arable land," and therefore would not displace food crops, says Oliver Inderwildi, at the University of Oxford.The majority of ethanol produced in the world is still derived from food crops such as corn and sugarcane. Speculators have argued for years now that using such crops for fuel can drive up the price of food. Agave, however, can grow on hot dry land with a high-yield and low environmental impact. The researchers proposing the plant’s use have modeled a facility in Jalisco, Mexico, which converts the high sugar content of the plant into ethanol. Another plant of great use is OPUNTIA for biogas production. The cultivation of nopal((OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA), a type of cactus, is one of the most important in Mexico. According to Rodrigo Morales, Chilean engineer, Wayland biomass, installed on Mexican soil, “allows you to generate inexhaustible clean energy.” Through the production of biogas, it can serve as a raw material more efficiently, by example and by comparison with jatropha. Wayland Morales, head of Elqui Global Energy argues that “an acre of cactus produces 43 200 m3 of biogas or the equivalent in energy terms to 25,000 liters of diesel.” With the same land planted with jatropha, he says, it will produce 3,000 liters of biodiesel. Another of the peculiarities of the nopal is biogas which is the same molecule of natural gas, but its production does not require machines or devices of high complexity. Also, unlike natural gas, contains primarily methane (75%), carbon dioxide (24%) and other minor gases (1%), “so it has advantages from the technical point of view since it has the same capacity heat but is cleaner, “he says, and as sum datum its calorific value is 7,000 kcal/m3. In the fields where Jatropha is being grown,Agave and Opuntia can be grown as Inter cropping.
In the vast waste land in AP Plants like Agave and Opuntia can be raised on a massive scale and Biofuel/biogaspower/biochar units can be set up.
I have ca novel scheme for Andhra Pradesh:
Youth Economic Zones (YEZ) The waste land can be allotted to youth with agricultural background (about 10 acres) on lease and ten such people can form a co-operative. They can grow fast growing care free plants like Agave, Opuntia and Jatropha. Biogas and biofuel can be generated at local level. Biogas power plants from KW size to MW size are available commercially from China. This way unemployment problem can be solved to some extent and the waste land can be brought under use.
Here is an action plan for Andhra Pradesh on Renewables to bring in Rural Prosperity:
1. Promote Offshore Wind Farms.
2. Promote small wind generators as decentralised systems
3. Roof Top PV Solar
4. Creating Renewable Energy Fund. Investment by Income Tax Payers to be exempted under Section 80C(For Central Government).
5. Wind Farm Co-operatives on the lines of those in Germany,Denmark etc.
6. Solar Co-operatives on the lines of those in US.
7. Energy Conservation by replacing most of the inefficient 2.6 Crore irrigation electric pump sets(About 30% power can be saved). Agriculture consumes much power next only to Industry
8. Reading lights with reliable and quality dual powered(Solar/Electricity/USB) to save enormous energy.
9. Biofuel/Biogas for power generation and cooking from Agave/opuntia care-free growth,regenerative and CAM plants. In China Biogas for cooking is supplied trough pipes.
In the vast vacant land in India Agave and Opuntia can be grown and power generation established as decentralised locally.
10. Simple Box Type Solar Cooker with frying facility( 3D approach,Design,Demonstrate and Disseminate)
11.Cost effective vertical and cylindrical,mobile solar water heater design.
12. Low head Micro hydro device to generate power from the head of falling water from the delivery pipe of Electric/diesel pump
13. KW size Biogas power/cooking plant for villages.
14. Simple solar drier
15. Growing CAM Plants in Waste and Vacant lands which act as Carbon Sink.
Though Solar Energy has to be promoted on a big scale,it is nowhere compared to Wind Energy both in India(Particularly Andhra Pradesh) and abroad. The Efficiency of Wind Turbines is quite high compared to Solar PV. For a country with vast waste land,biofuel/biogaspower/biochar has great potential from regenerative,care-free growth CAM plants like Agave and Opuntia.
Put the RENEWABLES to WORK: To get inexhaustible,Pollution- Free Energy which cannot be misused.
Renewable Energy Expert
In Andhra Pradesh there was an Announcement that Inefficient Electric motors will be replaced about 6 Months back. So far nothing happened. Today it is SLOGAN RAJ. No action. Daily One Slogan. People are watching. "You can fool some people all the times.all people some of the times but not ALL THE PEOPLE ALL THE TIMES" - So goes the saying.
REcently The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh visited China and some MOUs were signed between the Two countries with emphasis on Renewables especially Solar:
No doubt’ 29 Agreements Signed During China Tour: Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu’ is a record. But past experience shows many MOUs signed Internationally remain on paper. One important sector between AP and China seems to be Solar.
Worldwide manufacturing capacity of PV cells has grown over four fold since 2009. Most of this new manufacturing capacity has come up in China. The global module manufacturing industry is heavily driven by large production capacities that have been developed in China. Allegedly, Chinese equipment makers get free power for manufacturing, free land, incentives for exports and cheap capital.
• This has prompted local industry in many countries to seek protectionist measures against cheap Chinese imports. US manufacturing industry has taken concrete measures to seek anti-dumping duty against Chinese imports
• These protectionist measures were likely to have a positive impact on the Indian market
• However, Indian manufacturers also applied for anti-dumping protection against China and other countries. Protectionism will not help improve the market for Indian manufacturers. They should reduce the cost with good quality so that Chinese poor quality goods can be checked.
In India the Automobile sector,Software,infrastructure sector has progressed exponentially mainly because of quality. In my childhood days at the Time of Wedding Japanese Watches like Seiko and Citizen were presented and it was a fashion to wear Japanese Watches. Then Came excellent Indian Brands like TITAN. Today almost valuable foreign brand watches from countries like Japan almost vanished in India. Thanks to the invasion of Cheap, poor quality watches and cell phones they have pervaded the market bringing the name for Chinese Products. The mindset in India is Chinese goods are of poor quality. Moreover the success of Chinese industry can be attributed to its work culture,hard work and liberal incentives by the Government which may be lacking when once they move to Developing countries.
The very fact we are looking for everything to foreign countries like Singapore,Malaysia,South Korea and now China implies that Andhra Pradesh has no resources nor talent. It is a known fact that liberal concessions are given to foreign countries to set up industries in India. If the same are extended to Indian Companies, I am sure there is enough money in India in Private sector to meet the demand. Too much encouragement of foreign investment will kill the indigenous industries. Already solar panel manufacturers in Hyderabad are: XL Energy Limited, Hyderabad; Microsol Power P Ltd,Hyderabad; Maharishi Solar Technology (P) Ltd., Mruthyunjayapuram Village, Buchhi Naidu Kandriga Mandal,Dist. Chittoor. Can’t Indian Engineering Companies like L & T design a state Capital? Technology is culture specific. Our Engineers know better to design the capital to suit our needs and suiting to local ecological conditions. If AP Government is keen on providing employment to millions of youth, let them encourage Agro Industries and bringing in millions of hectares of waste lands under cultivation. Think Globally but Act Locally is the best option for Andhra Pradesh Government. The Andhra Pradesh economy is basically Agrarian. Let it be strengthened. Andhra Pradesh has hundreds of Engineering Colleges and lakhs of unemployed Engineers. They look for mass employment not piecemeal in sectors like IT.
Excellent. This will be a major breakthrough. Instead of Grass on the Ground, can one plant Agave and Opuntia on the borders and in gaps which will act as Carbon Sink being CAM plants,they are regenerative and can be grown in waste lands.
Excellent. Around the World Wind power is leading as a Renewable Energy and solar power is nowhere. The Development of Wind in India and China presents contrast. In India major wind activity was initiated in 1985 and today the installed wind capacity stands at 22644.63 MW. India is yet to tap offshore wind power despite the fact that it has long coast line.
As of 31 March 2015 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 22644.63 MW,
State Capacity as on 31-3-2014 MW
India-Wind Power Installed Capacity by year since 2006
Offshore Wind Farms in India yet to start.
The Growth of Wind in China presents a contrast:
I visited China to give keynote address at a Wind Conference in Tshingua University,Beijing in 2003 and Wind Farm capacity at that time was few hundreds MW. What is amazing is the consistently phenomenal rise of Wind Power in China as seen below:
Wind power in the PRC
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1,260 2,599 5,912 12,200 16,000 31,100 62,700
1,927 3,675 5,710 14,800 26,900 44,622
75,000 91,424 114,763
103,000 134,900 153,40
Offshore Wind Farms:
As of May 2012, China has two operational offshore wind farms. Construction of Donghai Bridge Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in China started in April 2009, close to Donghai Bridge, and commissioned in 2010 to provide electricity to the 2010 Shanghai Expo. The wind farm consists of 34 Sinovel 3 MW wind turbines at a cost of US$ 102 million. The next is the 150 MW Longyuan Rudong Intertidal Wind Farm costing 500 million ¥, operational in 2012.
Unfortunately, the development of offshore wind energy does not come as fast as expected. By the end of 2012, China had only installed 389.6MW offshore wind capacity, still far from the target goal of 5GW by the end of 2015. China's ambitious targets of 5GW of installed offshore wind capacity by 2015 and 30GW by 2020 would eclipse capacity in other countries. In May 2014 current capacity of offshore wind power in China was 565 MW.
One Constraint of Wind Power in China, Chinese wind power is not efficiently connected in the power grid .
In India, I suggest Wind Farm Co-operatatives on the lines of those in Germany,Denmark etc. Hitherto Depreciation benefits were given to large industries. A WIND FUND can be created and people( Individual Tax Payers) can be exempted if they invest in this Wind fund under Section 80C. This way there will be wide participation of People in Wind Farms. Also Offshore wind on a large scale since India has long coast.
Another success story is installation of small wind chargers. There are as many as 100,000 small wind turbines in use by nomadic herdsmen in northwestern China They supply power for a light and TV. I have surveyed the small wind turbines from China both horizontal and vertical. These are cost effective and can be widely used in Developing countries like India as decentralized power. With tall apartments coming up even in Towns in India, Small wind turbines up to 1KW on the roof makes sense. The Efficiency of Wind Turbines is much higher than Solar PV and maintenance of the former less.
Here is Summery on wind power for India:
Start Offshore Wind Energy on a large scale.
Wind Farm Co-operatives
Creating a Wind Fund
Small Wind Battery Chargers as decentralized power.
Put the WIND to WORK: To get inexhaustible, pollution-free energy which cannot be misused.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP),India
Wind Energy Expert
Mexico is leader in Bioenergy especially biofuel/biogaspower from care free growth,regenerative CAM plants Agave and Opuntia. Developing countries having huge wastelands area can adopt them. In India I am trying to promote this.
The other alternative is Biofuel/biogaspower/biochar from care-free growth,regenerative CAM plants which can be grown in vast waste lands in developing countries. This will also solve the problem of Food Vs Fuel to some extent. Agave and Opuntia being CAM plants will act as Carbon Sink.