First – the photovoltaic industry is global and all regions participate in the good times and the hard times, though, not always at the same time and in the same way. For example, as demand side participants in Europe (installers, system integrators, et al) enjoyed serving the largest market for solar installations, the region's manufacturers steadily lost share. In the U.S., demand has soared (thanks in part to the grant in lieu of ITC, which expired at the end of 2011), while U.S. technology manufacturers are struggling, in some cases failing.