Dams are considered critical infrastructure under International Humanitarian Law because of the massive effect a breach or failure could have on the population and environment. For example, the failure of South Fork Dam in 1889 caused more than 2,200 deaths in Johnstown, Pa., USA. A similar failure could cause greater casualties and economic losses because of the many cities in the flood plains of dams. Were Aswan Dam in Egypt to fail, it would cause fatality to a large percentage of Egypt's population while sweeping many structures into the Mediterranean Sea.